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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Seong Min Han 1 Article
Enhancing ketamine anesthesia with midazolam and fentanyl for children's ear surgery: a prospective randomized study
Seong Min Han, So Young Kwon, Jang Hyeok In, Jin Deok Joo
Received March 9, 2024  Accepted April 11, 2024  Published online May 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00276    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion (MTI) is a superficial surgical procedure used to prevent hearing loss in children with serous otitis media. Intravenous anesthesia, often ketamine, is preferred for this procedure because of its ability to induce sedation without compromising airway reflexes. However, ketamine alone may be insufficient and potentially lead to spontaneous movement during surgery. This study evaluated the effectiveness of midazolam and fentanyl as adjuvants to ketamine in reducing spontaneous movement during MTI and enhancing the quality of recovery.
Methods
This study involved two groups of 30 patients each: one group received intravenous ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) with an equal volume of normal saline (K group), while the other received a combination of midazolam, fentanyl, and ketamine (0.05 mg/kg, 1 μg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively; MFK group). We assessed side effects, intraoperative patient movement, surgeon satisfaction, and emergence agitation scores.
Results
The MFK group exhibited significantly lower scores for patient movement (p<0.01) and emergence agitation (p<0.01) and markedly higher surgeon satisfaction scores (p<0.01) than the K group.
Conclusion
Administering a midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine combination effectively reduced spontaneous movement during surgery and emergence agitation during recovery without prolonging discharge times in children undergoing MTI.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science