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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Volume 33(1); June 2016
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Diverse clinical manifestations caused by varicella-zoster virus reactivation.
Hosun Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):1-7.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The two distinctive clinical features of varicella-zoster virus (VZV) are varicella (chickenpox) by primary infection and zoster (singles) by the reactivation of latent infection. In addition to the two typical clinical symptoms mentioned above, diverse clinical manifestations have been reported as a result of VZV reactivation, including chronic radicular pain without rash, visual loss, facial palsy, dysphagia, sore throat, odynophagia, otalgia, hearing loss, dizziness, headache, hemiplegia, etc. Most of these symptoms are derived from neuropathy and vasculopathy of affected nerves and arteries. Diagnosis of VZV disease can be difficult if there is no appearance of a skin rash during development of atypical symptoms. In addition to natural infection, vaccination and anti-viral agent treatment have influenced the changes of epidemics and clinical presentations of varicella and zoster. In this article, diverse clinical manifestations caused by VZV reactivation, particular without skin rash, are reviewed.
Original Articles
The usefulness of newly developed R2CHA2DS2-VASc score and comparison with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in atrial fibrillation patients.
Jae Hoon Kwak, Se Hwan Yeo, Yeo Un Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Byong Kyu Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Jun Ho Bae, Deuk Young Nah, Kwan Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):8-12.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The decision to administer oral anticoagulation therapy depends on accurate assessment of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Various stroke risk stratification schemes have been developed to help inform clinical decision making. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores have been used in estimating the risk of stroke in patients with AF. Recently R2CHA2DS2-VASc score was developed. The objective of the current study is to validate the usefulness of the R2CHA2DS2-VASc score and to compare the accuracy of the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and R2CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting a patient's risk of stroke. METHODS: Based on medical records, we conducted a retrospective study of patients hospitalized with AF from March 2011 to July 2013. A total of 448 AF patients were included in this study. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in MedCalc was used for comparison with respective diagnostic values. RESULTS: The patient characteristics showed male predominance (60.9%). Among the 448 AF patients, 131 (29.2%) patients had strokes during the study. A R2CHA2DS2-VASc score of more than 5 is the optimal cut-off value for prediction of stroke. A risk score of three, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of R2CHA2DS2-VASc score (AUC 0.631; 95% confidence interval, 0.585-0.679) was the highest. A significant difference was observed between AUC for R2CHA2DS2-VASc, CHADS2, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, but no meaningful difference between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. CONCLUSION: We determined the usefulness of the R2CHA2DS2-VASc score, which showed better association with stroke than the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.
High levels of carcinoembryonic antigen and smoking might be markers of colorectal adenoma in Korean males aged 40-49 years.
In Cheol Yoon, Jeong Hyeon Cho, Heejin Choi, Young Hoon Choi, Kyu Min Lim, Sung Hwa Choi, Jae Ho Han, Hyeon Ju Jeong, Hong Sub Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):13-20.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Prevalence of adenoma in males aged 40-49 years in Korea was higher than expected. The aim of this study was to investigate the prevalence and risk factors of colorectal adenoma in males aged 40-49 years. METHODS: Total 1,902 asymptomatic subjects with a mean age of 47.9±6.7 years, who underwent a screening colonoscopy in a health promotion center of Myongji Hospital from 2010 to 2013 were enrolled in this study. We conducted a case-control study to determine the risk factors for adenoma. The subjects were classified into two groups (adenoma vs. controls). To validate the diagnostic value of carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA) for adenoma, area under the receiver operating characteristic curve (AUROC) was calculated. RESULTS: At least one colorectal adenoma was identified in 385 subjects (20.2%). Among these 385 subjects, 372 subjects were found to have a non-advanced adenoma, 13 subjects had an invasive adenoma. One subject had cancer. Male sex, age, smoking, metabolic syndrome, and elevated CEA level were significantly associated with a colorectal adenoma in univariate analysis. However, metabolic syndrome was not significant in multivariate analysis. In the male group, the AUROC of CEA for colorectal adenoma was 0.600 (0.543 to 0.656) in non-smokers under 50 years of age, and 0.615 (0.540 to 0.690) in smokers under 50 years of age. CONCLUSION: Male sex, smoking, and high levels of CEA seem to be associated with colorectal adenoma. High levels of CEA and smoking may be diagnostic markers for any colorectal adenoma in Korean males aged 40-49 years.
Case Reports
Giant esophageal schwannoma.
Min Jae Kim, Joon Cheol Song, Il Kim, Jin Tak Yun, Young Woo Kim, Young Choi, Yeon Ho Joo, Chang Hyun Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):21-24.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Esophageal schwannoma is a very rare submucosal tumor. We report successful management of esophageal schwannoma in a 41-year-old man who complained of progressively worsening dysphagia. A huge submucosal tumor was found via endoscopy and a chest computed tomography scan. Esophagectomy was performed with no post-operative complications. Post-operative immunohistochemistry staining showed a positive result for S-100 and negative results for c-kit and CD34. The post-operative mild dysphagia persisted, and the follow-up endoscopic findings revealed anastomosis site stenosis. Approximately 2 months later, we performed endoscopic balloon dilatation. We report herein a case of esophageal schwannoma with reviews.
Pulmonary thromboembolism combined with intracardiac thrombus occurred during the steroid reduction in nephrotic syndrome patient.
Se Jin Lee, Ji Young Park, Sung Kee Ryu, Jae Woong Choi, Won Young Chae, Hee Yun Ryu, Min Seok Yoo, Yoon Suk Bak
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):25-28.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Nephrotic syndrome is associated with a hypercoagulable state, which results in thromboembolism as one of its main complications. Various pathogenetic factors that cause the hypercoagulable state in nephrotic syndrome have been recognized. We report on a 19-year-old female with a minimal-change disease who developed pulmonary thromboembolism combined with intracardiac thrombus while on tapering steroid. Our patient showed hypoalbuminemia with an episode of shock, and was successfully treated with thrombolysis and anticoagulation therapy.
Successful removal of a foreign body by endoscopic balloon dilatation at the colonic stricture.
Chang Jo Im, Ji Hoon Na, Hyun Sik Kim, Sung Sam Ha, Yoo Li Lim, Ji Hyeon Lee, Hee Kyoung Choi, Hee Man Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):29-32.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Most ingested foreign bodies pass readily throughout intestinal tract if they reach the stomach. In some cases, foreign bodies may be impacted behind a luminal constriction but are rare in colon. Here, we report the case of a 59-year-old man who did laparoscopic anterior resection due to sigmoid colon cancer 2 years ago and ischemic colitis was repeated on the anastomosis site. He initially presented with symptoms of abdominal pain 3 months before and melena 1 day before admission. Abdomen computerized tomography showed a 3.2 cm segment of luminal narrowing of the proximal colon involving upstream foreign material stasis. Sigmoidoscopic approaches revealed near complete obstruction on the anal verge of 20 cm and scope passing failed. Balloon dilatations were done on the obstruction site four times all and a foreign body impacted above the obstruction site was removed by an alligator without any complications. The foreign body removed looks like plastic or a shell, about 20 mm in size.
Metformin induced acute pancreatitis and lactic acidosis in a patient on hemodialysis.
Yeon Kyung Lee, Kihyun Lim, Su Hyun Hwang, Young Hwan Ahn, Gyu Tae Shin, Heungsoo Kim, In Whee Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):33-36.   Published online June 30, 2016
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Metformin, commonly prescribed for type 2 diabetes, is considered safe with minimal side-effect. Acute pancreatitis is rare but potentially fatal adverse side-effect of metformin. We report a patient on hemodialysis with metformin-related acute pancreatitis and lactic acidosis. A 62-year-old woman with diabetic nephropathy and hypertension presented with nausea and vomiting for a few weeks, followed by epigastric pain. At home, the therapy of 500 mg/day metformin and 50 mg/day sitagliptin was continued, despite symptoms. Laboratory investigations showed metabolic acidosis with high levels of lactate, amylase at 520 U/L (range, 30-110 U/L), and lipase at 1,250 U/L (range, 23-300 U/L). Acute pancreatitis was confirmed by computed tomography. No recognized cause of acute pancreatitis was identified. Metformin was discontinued. Treatment with insulin and intravenous fluids resulted in normalized amylase, lipase, and lactate. When she was re-exposed to sitagliptin, no symptoms were reported.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Sex-differences in [68Ga]Ga-DOTANOC biodistribution
    A. Leisser, K. Lukic, M. Nejabat, W. Wadsak, M. Mitterhauser, M. Mayerhöfer, G. Karnaikas, M. Raderer, M. Hacker, A.R. Haug
    Nuclear Medicine and Biology.2019; 76-77: 15.     CrossRef
Solitary schwannoma of the ascending colon.
Myeong Su Chu, Hyun Mo Kang, Hyeong Ju Sun, Dong Min Kim, Hyong Jong Kwak
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):37-39.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 1,925 View
  • 3 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Schwannomas are uncommon neoplasms arising from Schwann cells of the neural sheath. Gastrointestinal schwannomas are rare, accounting for 1% of all malignant gastrointestinal tumors. Colonoscopic biopsy with immunohistochemical (IHC) staining is useful for confirming this tumor. We report on a patient with schwannoma arising from the ascending colon, which was detected by colonoscopy and endoscopic submucosal dissection was attempted. A 41-year-old man presented with abdominal discomfort. The patient was diagnosed with a subepithelial tumor on colonoscopy. He underwent endoscopic submucosal dissection. Histopathology and IHC staining confirmed that the colonic lesion was a benign schwannoma. However, the resection margin was positive. Therefore, laparoscopic ileocolectomy was performed.
Rapidly resolved IgG4-related retroperitoneal fibrosis after steroid pulse therapy.
Soomin Jeung, Hyosang Kim, Yuri Seo, Hee Young Yoon, Nah Kyum Lee, Shinhee Park, Bomi Seo, Su Yeon Park, Su Kil Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):40-43.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 1,774 View
  • 10 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Retroperitoneal fibrosis (RF) is a disorder characterized by the presence of a retroperitoneal mass and concurrent systemic inflammation. Some cases of RF are recognized as belonging to the spectrum of immunoglobulin G4-related disease (IgG4-RD). Glucocorticoids are highly effective for treatment of retroperitoneal fibrosis, although the optimal dose and duration of therapy have not been established. An initial dose of prednisone (40-60 mg) daily is usually administered with a tapering scheme. We report on a 55-year-old man diagnosed with IgG4-related RF and successfully treated with a 3-day course of daily 250 mg (4 mg/kg) intravenous methylprednisolone, which resulted in the prompt resolution of urinary obstruction and systemic symptoms.
Spontaneous renal artery dissection in Ehlers-Danlos syndrome.
Byung Hun Lim, Song I Lee, Jae Hong Lim, Su Jin Oh, Min Su Chu, Seon Ho Ahn, Seung Jae Byun
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):44-47.   Published online June 30, 2016
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  • 4 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Primary dissection of the renal artery is rare. Spontaneous renal artery dissection can be associated with diseases such as medial degeneration, neurofibromatosis, syphilitic arteritis, tuberculosis, polyarteritis nodosa, Marfan syndrome, fibromuscular dysplasia, or Ehlers-Danlos syndrome (EDS). Among these causes, EDS related renal artery dissection is very rare worldwide and has not been previously reported in Korea. EDS are a group of heritable connective tissue disorders characterized by fragility of the skin and hypermobility of the joints. We describe the case history of a young man who presented with left side flank pain, hypermobility of the hand joints and showed left renal artery dissection on computed tomography and angiography that turned out to be the first complication of vascular type EDS.
Milk-alkali syndrome secondary to the intake of calcium supplements.
In Hee Lee, Sin Young Noh, Gun Woo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):48-51.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Milk-alkali syndrome (MAS), a triad of hypercalcemia, metabolic alkalosis, and renal failure, is associated with ingestion of large amounts of calcium and absorbable alkali. MAS is the third most common cause of hypercalcemia in hospital, after primary hyperparathyroidism and malignant neoplasm. MAS is not often reported in the Korean literature. We describe MAS secondary to intake of calcium citrate for the treatment of osteoporosis with thoracic spine compression fracture. A 70-year-old man presented to our hospital with a 1-week history of general weakness and lethargy. He was found with acute kidney injury (serum creatinine, 4.6 mg/dL), hypercalcemia (total calcium, 14.8 mg/dL), and alkalosis. Laboratory evaluation excluded both hyperparathyroidism and malignancy. Mental status and serum calcium level was normalized within a week after proper hydration and intravenous administration of furosemide. However, he developed aspiration pneumonia, pseudomembranous colitis, and sepsis with multi-organ failure. Despite intensive treatment including inotropics, mechanical ventilation, and renal replacement therapy, he expired with no signs of renal recovery on the 28th hospital day.
Guide wire fracture during percutaneous coronary intervention.
Hak Ro Kim, Tae Hoon Yim, Byung Chul Kim, Ho Jun Lee, Hong Geun Oh, Hyun Sik Ju, Tae Jin Kim, Young Bok Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):52-55.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 1,778 View
  • 6 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Guide wire fracture during percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is rare. It can cause fatal complications such as thrombus formation, embolization, and perforation. Guide wire fracture could occur during intervention for severely calcified stenotic lesions, and rarely from distal small branches of stenotic lesions. There are several methods for its management depending on the material character, position, length of the remnant, and the patient's condition. If percutaneous retrieval was not achieved, the surgical procedure should be considered for prevention of potential risks, although the remnant guide wire does not usually cause complications. We experienced a patient with a guide wire fracture during PCI, and managed to prevent its complications through surgical removal of the remnant wire. We report this case here.
Recurrent onycholysis in a patient with Behcet's disease.
Hyeon Seok Kim, Dong Seok Lee, Seung Hwan Lee, Woo Hyuk Kwon, Yun Jeong Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):56-58.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Onycholysis is defined as a distal or distal lateral separation of the nail plate from the underlying or lateral supporting structures including nail bed, hyponychium, and lateral nail fold. Trauma, infection, psoriasis, thyrotoxicosis, and numerous drugs are common causes of onycholysis. However, there are few specific data on nail findings in Behcet's disease (BD). In this paper, we report on a 60-year-old man with BD, with no past history except BD, who developed recurrent onycholysis. The symptoms of onycholysis are considered to be recurrent depending on the activity of BD. The nail lesion showed improvement after classic treatment of BD and topical steroid ointment.
DRESS syndrome with acute interstitial nephritis caused by quinolone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Soo Jin Kim, Young Hee Nam, Ji Young Juong, Eun Young Kim, Su Mi Lee, Young Ki Son, Hee Joo Nam, Ki Ho Kim, Soo Keol Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):59-63.   Published online June 30, 2016
  • 1,794 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Drug reaction with eosinophilia and systemic symptoms (DRESS) syndrome is a rare and severe drug-induced hypersensitivity syndrome characterized by hematological abnormalities and multiorgan involvement. Liver involvement is the most common visceral manifestation. However, renal failure has been rarely described. The common culprit drugs are anticonvulsants and allopurinol. We experienced a patient with DRESS syndrome with acute interstitial nephritis caused by concomitant administration of quinolone and non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs). A 41-year-old man presented with a diffuse erythematous rash and fever which developed after administration of quinolone and NSAIDs for a month due to prostatitis. He was diagnosed with DRESS syndrome. Skin rash, fever, eosinophilia, and elevations of liver enzymes improved with conservative treatment and discontinuation of the causative drugs. However, deterioration of his renal function occurred on day 8 of admission. The levels of blood urea nitrogen and serum creatinine increased and oliguria, proteinuria and urinary eosinophils were observed. Ultrasonography showed diffuse renal enlargement. The clinical features were compatible with acute interstitial nephritis. Despite intravenous rehydration and diuretics, renal function did not improve. After hemodialysis, his renal function recovered completely within 2 weeks without administration of systemic corticosteroid.
Efficacy of epidermal growth factor receptor-tyrosine kinase inhibitors for patient with leptomeningeal metastasis of epidermal growth factor receptor mutant non-small cell lung cancer.
Jong Sik Lee, Kyung Ann Lee, Kang Hoon Lee, Sun Young Moon, In Ae Kim, Sung Jin Jeon, Jae Ki Min, Hee Joung Kim, Kye Young Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):64-67.   Published online June 30, 2016
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AbstractAbstract PDF
We report on a 64-year-old man with leptomeningeal metastasis (LM) from an epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR)-mutated adenocarcinoma of the lung. He was treated with paclitaxel, cisplatin. After completion of chemotherapy, he complained of headache, nausea, and vomiting. EGFR-mutated tumor cells were identified from the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Second-line therapy with gefitinib, methotrexate was started. After receiving gefitinib for 4 weeks, he had no more headaches or vomiting. Eleven months after initiation of gefitinib, he developed headache and nausea. Chest computed tomography showed aggravation of bone metastasis. Third-line therapy was started with gemcitabine and carboplatin. Two weeks later, he experienced disorientation. After a fourth relapse within the central nervous system, the therapy was switched to erlotinib and significant improvement of LM was achieved. This case shows that LM can be diagnosed by detecting EGFR mutation in CSF and EGFR tyrosine kinase inhibitors are effective for LM from EGFR mutant non-small cell lung cancer.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science