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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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Original article
Perioperative outcomes of interrupted anticoagulation in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation undergoing non-cardiac surgery
Bo Eun Park, Myung Hwan Bae, Hyeon Jeong Kim, Yoon Jung Park, Hong Nyun Kim, Se Yong Jang, Jang Hoon Lee, Dong Heon Yang, Hun Sik Park, Yongkeun Cho, Shung Chull Chae
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2020;37(4):321-328.   Published online July 16, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2020.00353
  • 5,693 View
  • 98 Download
  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the incidences of and risk factors for perioperative events following anticoagulant discontinuation in patients with non-valvular atrial fibrillation (NVAF) undergoing non-cardiac surgery.
Methods
A total of 216 consecutive patients who underwent cardiac consultation for suspending perioperative anticoagulants were enrolled. A perioperative event was defined as a composite of thromboembolism and major bleeding.
Results
The mean anticoagulant discontinuation duration was 5.7 (±4.2) days and was significantly longer in the warfarin group (p<0.001). Four perioperative thromboembolic (1.85%; three strokes and one systemic embolization) and three major bleeding events (1.39%) were observed. The high CHA2DS2-VASc and HAS-BLED scores and a prolonged preoperative anticoagulant discontinuation duration (4.4±2.1 vs. 2.9±1.8 days; p=0.028) were associated with perioperative events, whereas the anticoagulant type (non-vitamin K antagonist oral anticoagulants or warfarin) was not. The best cut-off levels of the HAS-BLED and CHA2DS2-VASc scores were 3.5 and 2.5, respectively, and the preoperative anticoagulant discontinuation duration for predicting perioperative events was 2.5 days. Significant differences in the perioperative event rates were observed among the four risk groups categorized according to the sum of these values: risk 0, 0%; risk 1, 0%; risk 2, 5.9%; and risk 3, 50.0% (p<0.001). Multivariate logistic regression analysis showed that the HAS-BLED score was an independent predictor for perioperative events.
Conclusion
Thromboembolic events and major bleeding are not uncommon during perioperative anticoagulant discontinuation in patients with NVAF, and interrupted anticoagulation strategies are needed to minimize these.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Bleeding risk in female patients undergoing intravesical injection of onabotulinumtoxinA for overactive bladder: a Danish retrospective cohort study
    Meryam El Issaoui, Sophia Elissaoui, Marlene Elmelund, Niels Klarskov
    International Urogynecology Journal.2023; 34(10): 2581.     CrossRef
Case Report
Acute upper limb ischemia in a patient with newly diagnosed paroxysmal atrial fibrillation
Dong Shin Kim, Seunghwan Kim, Hyang Ki Min, Chiwoo Song, Young Bin Kim, Sae Jong Kim, Ji Young Park, Sung Kee Ryu, Jae Woong Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2017;34(2):242-246.   Published online December 31, 2017
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2017.34.2.242
  • 2,028 View
  • 19 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute limb ischemia (ALI) due to an embolism is associated with high mortality rate and poor prognosis, and early diagnosis with prompt revascularization is required to reduce the risk of limb amputation or even death. The etiologies of ALI are diverse, and it includes an embolism from the heart and thrombotic occlusion of the atherosclerotic native vessels, stents, or grafts. An uncommon cause of ALI is acute arterial thromboembolism, and atrial fibrillation (AF) is the single most important risk factors for systemic thromboembolism. It is important to correctly identify the source of ALI for secondary prevention, as it depends on the underlying cause. Percutaneous transluminal angioplasty (PTA) has been proven to be a safe and effective treatment for focal atherosclerotic and thrombotic occlusive diseases of the aorta and its major extremity branches. Herein, we report on a 77-year-old female patient with acute upper limb ischemia, treated by PTA using a catheter-guided thrombectomy. He was newly diagnosed with paroxysmal AF (PAF) while evaluation the cause of his acute arterial thromboembolism. We recommend that cardiologists always consider PAF as a possible diagnosis even in patients without any history of AF under ALI because it is possible to develop thromboembolism in clinical practice.
Original Articles
The usefulness of newly developed R2CHA2DS2-VASc score and comparison with CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores in atrial fibrillation patients.
Jae Hoon Kwak, Se Hwan Yeo, Yeo Un Kim, Jin Suk Lee, Byong Kyu Kim, Jin Wook Chung, Jun Ho Bae, Deuk Young Nah, Kwan Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(1):8-12.   Published online June 30, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2016.33.1.8
  • 2,335 View
  • 18 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The decision to administer oral anticoagulation therapy depends on accurate assessment of stroke risk in patients with atrial fibrillation (AF). Various stroke risk stratification schemes have been developed to help inform clinical decision making. The CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores have been used in estimating the risk of stroke in patients with AF. Recently R2CHA2DS2-VASc score was developed. The objective of the current study is to validate the usefulness of the R2CHA2DS2-VASc score and to compare the accuracy of the CHADS2, CHA2DS2-VASc, and R2CHA2DS2-VASc scores in predicting a patient's risk of stroke. METHODS: Based on medical records, we conducted a retrospective study of patients hospitalized with AF from March 2011 to July 2013. A total of 448 AF patients were included in this study. The receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curve analysis in MedCalc was used for comparison with respective diagnostic values. RESULTS: The patient characteristics showed male predominance (60.9%). Among the 448 AF patients, 131 (29.2%) patients had strokes during the study. A R2CHA2DS2-VASc score of more than 5 is the optimal cut-off value for prediction of stroke. A risk score of three, the area under the ROC curve (AUC) of R2CHA2DS2-VASc score (AUC 0.631; 95% confidence interval, 0.585-0.679) was the highest. A significant difference was observed between AUC for R2CHA2DS2-VASc, CHADS2, and CHA2DS2-VASc scores, but no meaningful difference between CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores. CONCLUSION: We determined the usefulness of the R2CHA2DS2-VASc score, which showed better association with stroke than the CHADS2 and CHA2DS2-VASc scores.
Parasympathetic Modulation Plays a Key Role in Initiation of Paroxysmal Atrial Fibrillation.
Won Jae Lee, Dong Gu Shin, Geu Ru Hong, Jong Sun Park, Young Jo Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):216-231.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2.216
  • 1,726 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
An acceleration or deceleration of the heart rate (HR), which reflects autonomic effects, is observed before the onset of paroxysmal atrial fibrillation (PAF). The purpose of this study was to assess the discrepancy in the autonomic interactions before the onset of PAF for different patterns of change in the HR. MATERIALS AND METHODS: From 105 Holter tapes with the PAF recorded, 55 episodes (42 patients, 34 men, 58+/-12 years) of PAF (>5 min), preceded by a sinus rhythm for more than 1 hour, were selected and submitted to time-domain and frequency-domain HR variability analyses. Fifty-five episodes were divided into 2 groups: group A PAF (n=30) with acceleration of the HR during the last 2 minutes before the PAF and group B (n=25) with deceleration of the HR. RESULTS: A significant linear decrease in the mean R-R interval was observed in group A (924+/-30 to 835+/-28 ms, P=0.001) and an increase from 831+/-32 to 866+/-31 ms in group B PAF episodes (P=0.046). In the frequency-domain analyses, the LF/HF ratio exhibited a progressive linear increase before the PAF in group A (P=0.005). The HF normalized units (HFnu) and natural logarithm-transformed HF (lnHF) values decreased from 30.8+/-4.0 to 16.1+/-1.8 (P=0.003) and 4.49+/-0.25 to 4.07+/-0.22 (P=0.001), respectively. Contrary to the results in group A, a significant increase in the HF components (HFnu and lnHF) (from 22.6+/-3.2 to 30.2+/-4.0, P=0.005, and 4.27+/-0.27 to 4.75 0.33, P=0.001, respectively) and a resultant decrease in the LF/HF ratio were observed in group B PAF episodes. No significant changes were observed in the LF components in either PAF group. CONCLUSION: Autonomic stimuli leading to an acceleration or deceleration of the HR before the onset of AF are due to parasympathetic modulation. Parasympathetic modulation plays a key role in the initiation of PAF
The Difference of Left Atrial Volume Index: Can It Predict the Occurrence of Atrial Fibrillation after Radiofrequency Ablation of Atrial Flutter?.
Ung Kim, Young Jo Kim, Sang Wook Kang, In Wook Song, Jung Hwan Jo, Sang Hee Lee, Geu Ru Hong, Jong Seon Park, Dong Gu Shin
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):197-205.   Published online December 31, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.2.197
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The occurrence of atrial fibrillation after ablation of atrial flutter is clinically important. We investigated variables predicting this evolution in ablated patients without a previous atrial fibrillation history. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Thirty-six patients (Male=28) who were diagnosed as atrial flutter without previous atrial fibrillation history were enrolled in this study. Group 1 (n=11) was defined as those who developed atrial fibrillation after atrial flutter ablation during 1 year follow-up. Group 2 (n=25) was defined as those who has not occurred atrial fibrillation during same follow-up term. Echocardiogram was performed to all patients. We measured left atrial size, left ventricle end diastolic and systolic dimension, ejection fraction and left atrial volume index before and after ablation of atrial flutter. The differences of each variables were compared and analyzed between two groups. RESULTS: The preablation left ventricular ejection fraction (preLVEF) and postablation left ventricular ejection fraction (postLVEF) are 54+/-14%, 56+/-13% in group 1 and 47+/-16%, 52+/-13% in group 2. The differences between each two groups are statistically insignificant (2.2+/-1.5 in group 1 vs 5.4+/-9.8 in group 2, p=0.53). The preablation left atrial size (preLA) and postablation left atrial size (postLA) are 40+/-4 mm, 41+/-4 mm in group1 and 44+/-8 mm, 41+/-4 mm in group 2. The atrial sizes of both groups were increased but, the differences of left atrial size between two groups before and after flutter ablation were statistically insignificant (0.6+/-0.9mm in group 1 vs -3.8+/-7.4 mm in group 2, p=0.149). The left atrial volume index before flutter ablation was significantly reduced in group 1 than group 2 (32+/-10 mm3/m2, 35+/-10 mm3/m2 in group 1 and 32+/-10 mm3/m2, 29+/-8 mm3/m2 in group 2, p<0.05). CONCLUSION: The difference between left atrial volume index before and after atrial flutter ablation is the robust predictor of occurrence of atrial fibrillation after atrial flutter ablation without previous atrial fibrillation.
Review
Recent Advances in Surgery for Atrial Fibrillation.
Dong Hyup Lee, Tae Eun Jung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2005;22(1):13-26.   Published online June 30, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2005.22.1.13
  • 1,608 View
  • 1 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Atrial fibrillation (AF) is the most common cardiac rhythm disturbance, which carries significant cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. The medical treatment for AF is cumbersome and unsatisfactory, which has highlighted the need to develop alternative treatments for AF. The recent discovery that AF is often initiated by atrial ectopic beats has resulted in treatments designed to target the ectopic sources, particularly those within the pulmonary veins. Building on the pioneering work of Cox et al., a recent reported series demonstrated the feasibility of treating patients undergoing cardiac surgery for other structural heart diseases with limited, left-atrial ablation lesion sets using alternative energy sources. As less complex modifications of the Maze procedure have been developed, a number of energy sources have been introduced to create of electrically isolating lesions within the atria. These sources have been used both endocardially in arrest heart procedures as well as epicardially in a beating heart setting. This review summarizes the recent advances in surgery for AF that will aid in the development of an effective, minimally invasive surgical procedure to cure patients with AF.
Original Article
P wave dispersion as a predictor of idiopathic paroxysmal atrial fibrillation.
Gue Ru Hong, Woong Kim, Jong Seon Park, Dong Gu Shin, Young Jo Kim, Bong Sup Shim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2001;18(2):267-276.   Published online December 31, 2001
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2001.18.2.267
  • 1,581 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
P wave dispersion(PWD) is defined as the difference between the maximum and minimal P wave duration in any of the 12 leads of the surface ECG. The prolongation of atrial conduction time and the inhomogeneous propagation of sinus impulse are known electrophysiologic features in patients with paroxysmal atrial fibrillation(PAF). The purpose of this study was to determine the role of P wave dispersion for the prediction of PAF and to evaluate the effectiveness of prophylactic antiarrhythmic therapy. MATERIALS AND METHODS: The study population included 20 patients with a history of idiopathic PAF and 20 age and sex matched healthy control subjects. We measured the maximum P wave duration(P maximum) and P wave dispersion from 12 lead ECG. RESULTS: P maximum and P dispersion in idiopathic PAF were significantly higher than normal control group(97.2+/-12, 48.5+/-9msec vs, 76.5+/-11, 21+/-8msec, respectively p<0.001, <0.001). After 12-month follow up period P maximum and P dispersion were significantly reduced than those of initial state(77.2+/-13, 26.4+/-9msec vs. 97.2+/-12, 48.5+/-9msec, respectively p<0.001,<0.001). CONCLUSION: P dispersion and P maximum were significantly different between patients with idiopathic PAF and healthy control group. Those are easily accessible, non-invasive simple electrocadiographic markers that could be used for the prediction and prognostic factors of idiopathic PAF.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science