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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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2 "Electroencephalography"
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Antiepileptic and anti-neuroinflammatory effects of red ginseng in an intrahippocampal kainic acid model of temporal lobe epilepsy demonstrated by electroencephalography
Ju Young Kim, Jin Hyeon Kim, Hee Jin Lee, Sang Hoon Kim, Young Jin Jung, Hee-Young Lee, Hee Jaung Kim, Sae Yoon Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2018;35(2):192-198.   Published online December 31, 2018
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Chronic inflammation can lower the seizure threshold and have influence on epileptogenesis. The components of red ginseng (RG) have anti-inflammatory effects. The abundance of peripherally derived immune cells in resected epileptic tissue suggests that the immune system is a potential target for anti-epileptogenic therapies. The present study used continuous electroencephalography (EEG) to evaluate the therapeutic efficacy of RG in intrahippocampal kainic acid (IHKA) animal model of temporal lobe epilepsy.
Prolonged status epilepticus (SE) was induced in 7-week-old C57BL/6J mice via stereotaxic injection of kainic acid (KA, 150 nL; 1 mg/mL) into the right CA3/dorsal hippocampus. The animals were implanted electrodes and monitored for spontaneous seizures. Following the IHKA injections, one group received treatments of RG (250 mg/kg/day) for 4 weeks (RG group, n=7) while another group received valproic acid (VPA, 30 mg/kg/day) (VPA group, n=7). Laboratory findings and pathological results were assessed at D29 and continuous (24 h/week) EEG monitoring was used to evaluate high-voltage sharp waves on D7, D14, D21, and D28.
At D29, there were no differences between the groups in liver function test but RG group had higher blood urea nitrogen levels. Immunohistochemistry analyses revealed that RG reduced the infiltration of immune cells into the brain and EEG analyses showed that it had anticonvulsant effects.
Repeated treatments with RG after IHKA-induced SE decreased immune cell infiltration into the brain and resulted in a marked decrease in electrographic seizures. RG had anticonvulsant effects that were similar to those of VPA without serious side effects.


Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Comparative analysis of physicochemical properties, ginsenosides content and α-amylase inhibitory effects in white ginseng and red ginseng
    Huairui Wang, Yao Cheng, Xue Zhang, Yingping Wang, Hui Zhao
    Food Science and Human Wellness.2023; 12(1): 14.     CrossRef
  • Robust chronic convulsive seizures, high frequency oscillations, and human seizure onset patterns in an intrahippocampal kainic acid model in mice
    Christos Panagiotis Lisgaras, Helen E. Scharfman
    Neurobiology of Disease.2022; 166: 105637.     CrossRef
  • The interplay of epilepsy with impaired mitophagy and autophagy linked dementia (MAD): A review of therapeutic approaches
    Siva Prasad Panda, Yogita Dhurandhar, Mehak Agrawal
    Mitochondrion.2022; 66: 27.     CrossRef
Effect of Sleep on Epileptiform Discharges in Epileptic Patients with Structural Lesion: Based on Routine EEG.
Se Jin Lee, Jeong Sang Hah
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(2):107-118.   Published online December 31, 2007
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AbstractAbstract PDF
It is well known that non-rapid eye movement(NREM) sleep activates the occurrence of interictal epileptiform discharges(IED) in many epileptic syndromes. We performed this study to assess the effect of NREM sleep on IED in epileptic patients with organic brain lesions. MATERIALS AND METHODS: We analyzed awake and sleep electroencephalopathy(EEG) recorded simultaneously after partial sleep deprivation in 50 patients. We calculated the awake and sleep spike index (ASI and SSI, spikes/epoch), and the percentage increase of ASI and SSI during sleep. RESULTS: In the 50 patients, the IEDs were recorded exclusively during the awake state in 1 (2%) patient, and during the sleep state in 13(26%) patients. The SSI was higher in 44 (88%) patients, and the ASI was higher in 5 (10%) patients. The mean ASI and the SSI in patients with organic brain lesions were 0.058+/-0.121 and 0.148+/-0.187, and it was 0.081+/-0.150 and 0.174 +/-0.226 in patients without organic brain lesions. There were significant increases in the spike index (P<0.05) during NREM sleep in both groups (n=36), but no significant difference in the percent increase of spike index (P>0.05). CONCLUSION: The IEDs were activated significantly during NREM sleep both in patients with and without organic brain lesions, but there were no differences in the degree of activation in both groups. The activating effect of NREM sleep was not correlated with clinical factors such as, frequent nocturnal seizures, frequent generalized tonic clonic seizures, type of epilepsy and taking anticonvulsants. We conclude that the routine EEG used to evaluate epileptiform discharges in epileptic patients should include sleep recordings after partial sleep deprivation.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science