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Kyeong Soo Lee 13 Articles
A study on evaluator factors affecting physician-patient interaction scores in clinical performance examinations: a single medical school experience
Young Soon Park, Kyung Hee Chun, Kyeong Soo Lee, Young Hwan Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2021;38(2):118-126.   Published online August 6, 2020
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2020.00423
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study is an analysis of evaluator factors affecting physician-patient interaction (PPI) scores in clinical performance examination (CPX). The purpose of this study was to investigate possible ways to increase the reliability of the CPX evaluation.
Methods
The six-item Yeungnam University Scale (YUS), four-item analytic global rating scale (AGRS), and one-item holistic rating scale (HRS) were used to evaluate student performance in PPI. A total of 72 fourth-year students from Yeungnam University College of Medicine in Korea participated in the evaluation with 32 faculty and 16 standardized patient (SP) raters. The study then examined the differences in scores between types of scale, raters (SP vs. faculty), faculty specialty, evaluation experience, and level of fatigue as time passes.
Results
There were significant differences between faculty and SP scores in all three scales and a significant correlation among raters’ scores. Scores given by raters on items related to their specialty were lower than those given by raters on items out of their specialty. On the YUS and AGRS, there were significant differences based on the faculty’s evaluation experience; scores by raters who had three to ten previous evaluation experiences were lower than others’ scores. There were also significant differences among SP raters on all scales. The correlation between the YUS and AGRS/HRS declined significantly according to the length of evaluation time.
Conclusion
In CPX, PPI score reliability was found to be significantly affected by the evaluator factors as well as the type of scale.
The effect of formaldehyde on neurobehavioral performance of student during cadaver dissection.
Yong Sakong, Hee Yoon Jo, In Gook Lee, Kyeong Soo Lee, Man Joong Jun
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2016;33(2):85-89.   Published online December 31, 2016
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2016.33.2.85
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  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Formaldehyde is used to preserve cadaver in medical schools, and students are exposed to formaldehyde during cadaver dissection classes. When humans are exposed to formaldehyde, it induces mucosal inflammation, skin inflammation, and declining of neurobehavioral function including attention and memory executive functions. The purpose of this study is to identify the effects of formaldehyde exposure on student's neurobehavioral performance during cadaver dissection classes. METHODS: The level of formaldehyde was measured in a cadaver dissection class. A total of 16 students were randomly divided into two groups. One group wore respiratory protection masks, while the other group did not. Among many subtests in Korean Computerized Neurobehavioral test, backward digit span was tested on all subjects before and after the class. RESULTS: The length of memorized digit span between the two groups was not significant; however there was a greater decrease in neurobehavioral function after formaldehyde exposure in the non-mask group than the mask group. CONCLUSION: Formaldehyde exposure during cadaver dissection may likely decrease neurobehavioral performance of students. Therefore, proper ventilation system and respiratory protective equipment are necessary to protect medical school students from adverse effects of formaldehyde exposure.

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  • Safety and Management Status of Anatomical Labs in Medical Schools
    Jae-Hee Park, Kwang-Rak Park, An-Na Bae, Han-Gyu Jeong, Jae-Ho Lee
    Keimyung Medical Journal.2022; 41(2): 76.     CrossRef
  • Associations between smartphone addiction scale and sociopsychological aspects in medical school students
    Hye In Kim, Seong Hi Cheon, Hwa Jeong Kang, Keunmi Lee, Seung Pil Jung
    Yeungnam University Journal of Medicine.2017; 34(1): 55.     CrossRef
Health Behaviors of Nurses at a University Hospital according to Type of Work.
Mi Kyung Kwon, Pock soo Kang, Tae Yoon Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2007;24(1):55-66.   Published online June 30, 2007
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2007.24.1.55
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
The goal of this study was to examine the health behaviors of nurses and provide basic information on health promotion for nurses. MATERIALS AND METHODS: A self-administered questionnaire survey was completed by 340 nurses working at a university hospital in Daegu, Korea from March 6 to March 30, 2006. The questionnaire included demographic characteristics, working environment, health behaviors, self-assessed health status, and the practice of health promotion activities according to the work group(shift group vs. non-shift group). RESULTS: There were significant differences in 'regular diet', 'drinking', 'ordinary health management', 'regular exercise', 'leisure activities', 'rest', and 'feeling of fatigue' between the two groups. The score for the practice of health promotion activities of the non-shift group was 121.9, which was higher than the 115.4 for the shift group. By field of practice of health promotion activities, there were significant differences in 'self-realization' and 'nutrition' between the two groups. CONCLUSION: The shift group did not appear to have enough time to take care of their health. It is therefore important to provide a working environment in which nurses are encouraged to increase their interest and efforts to maintain healthy behaviors. In addition, programs for education and training should be developed to help nurses adopt healthy life styles and enhance their self-esteem.

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  • Associations of mindful eating with dietary intake pattern, occupational stress, and mental well‐being among clinical nurses
    Seung‐Hye Choi, Haeyoung Lee
    Perspectives in Psychiatric Care.2020; 56(2): 355.     CrossRef
  • A Survey on the Health Behavior and General and Ocular Health Care Status of Optometrists
    Jihye Ahn, Eunji Oh, Moonsung Choi
    Journal of Korean Ophthalmic Optics Society.2020; 25(3): 195.     CrossRef
  • Factors Influencing Happiness Index of Hospital Nurses
    Moon Hee Nam, Young Chae Kwon
    Journal of Korean Academy of Nursing Administration.2013; 19(3): 329.     CrossRef
Agreement among the Survey Instruments used to Measure Cognitive Functions in the Elderly.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyung Beom Park, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang, Sang Kyu Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2005;22(2):141-149.   Published online December 31, 2005
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2005.22.2.141
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PURPOSE: This study was conducted to assess the level of agreement among survey instruments used to study dementia and to determine the prevalence rate of suspected dementia using different instruments. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: A total 171 subjects older than 65 in Gyeongju-si, Gyeongsangbuk-do, were surveyed from February to October 2003. The age, sex and educational level were examined through interview surveys, and cognitive function was evaluated using three survey instruments including MMSE-K, S-SDQ, and KDSQ. RESULTS: The cognitive function scores obtained with the MMSE-K showed significant difference according to age. For sex and educational level significant differences were observed with all three survey instruments. The kappa index, the level of agreement between the questionnaires, was 0.302 between MMSE-K and S-SDQ, 0.401 between MMSE-K and KDSQ, and 0.762 between KDSQ and S-SDQ. The prevalence rate of suspected dementia based on the criteria suggested by MMSE-K, S-SDQ, and KDSQ was 27.5%, 15.2%, and 17.0% respectively. CONCLUSION: The results of this study suggest that caution is needed when comparing the measured cognitive function scores and analyzing the prevalence of dementia; this is because the prevalence of dementia and cognitive functions vary according to the questionnaires used.
Demands for Health Education through Internet in Middle and High School Students.
Pock Soo Kang, Yeun Hwa Choi, Kyeong Soo Lee, Tae Yoon Hwang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2004;21(1):23-39.   Published online June 30, 2004
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2004.21.1.23
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
It is important to provide health education to students to ensure a healthy life. Using the internet for health education may be a way to overcome the practical barriers to health education such as time and content. This study was conducted to investigate the demands for health education using the internet. SUBJECTS AND METHODS: Six hundreds and twenty-four and male female students in middle and high schools, who lived on Gyeongju-si and Seongju-gun in Gyeongsangbuk-do province, were interviewed by means of structured questionnaires, from March 5 to March 28, 2003. RESULTS: More than 90% of the subjects had their own computers, and nearly 38% of those possessing their own computers had accessed internet sites related to health and medicine. Middle school students and in particular, female students were more desirous for health education through e-mail. Regarding content, the three major topics which the respondents wanted to learn about were healthy lifestyles, growth and development, and disease prevention. In terms of the interval for providing educational materials, over half of the students wanted information once a week. Most of the students wanted to have the quantity of the material be one page. In addition, there were numerous additional topics requested by the students such as sleep and health, contraception and family planning, safety education, cancer prevention, emotional instability of juveniles, the utilization of medical care facilities, stress management, etc. CONCLUSION: The students had a desire for health education through the use of e-mail, and methods and materials should be developed for appropriate health education using the internet.

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  • Emergency Contraceptive Pills: Knowledge, Attitude, and Intention of High School Girls in Korea
    Hee Sun Kang
    Korean Journal of Women Health Nursing.2009; 15(4): 336.     CrossRef
A study on Perception and attitudes of Examinees of Health Screening Center towards health Examination.
Seong Wook Bae, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):59-77.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.59
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A survey was conducted to study perception and attitudes of examinees of, health screening center towards items, cost and procedures of health examination and degree of satisfaction with health examination, from March 2 to May 31, 1995. The study population was 468 examinees received health examination at Health Screening & Diagnosis Center of Yeungnam University Hospital. A questionnaire method was used to collect data. The followings are summaries of findings Examinees were predominantly male(77.4%) ; had college education(68.6%), and held white-collar workers (57.8%). Statistical significance of association between frequency of periodic health examination and other variables
Knowledge and Attitude about AIDS among Teachers in Taegu City.
Tae Yoon Hwang, Jun Sakong, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1996;13(1):32-45.   Published online June 30, 1996
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1996.13.1.32
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The AIDS is a serious health problem worldwide today and also in Korea. Increasing knowledge and modification of behavior by health education is an important goal of human immunodeficiency virus(HIV) prevention strategies. And school health education is an important part of health education. This study was conducted to evaluate the knowledge and attitude about AIDS in teachers and professors in Taegu City and to provide the basic data for school health education. A self-administered questionnaire was given to 1,124 teachers and professors from April to June 1992. Indeed, the majority of the teachers and professors have a lot of knowledges about AIDS, but many of them also have misconceptions. The level of knowledge about AIDS was positively associated with attitude toward infected students. The sources of knowledge about AIDS were mainly TV, newspapers and magazines, but a few of the subjects obtained their knowledge from health education programs. This study suggest., that the reinforcement of health education for the teachers, professors and students be needed to provide the accurate knowledge on AIDS and adequate knowledge sources and materials for school health education on AIDS should be developed.
A Study on Preception and Attitudes of Health Workers Towards the Organization and Activies of Urban Health Centers.
Jae Mu Lee, Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Cheon Tae Kim
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1995;12(2):347-365.   Published online December 31, 1995
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1995.12.2.347
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A survey was conducted to study perception and attitudes of health workers towards health centers activities and organization of health services, from August 15 to September 30, 1994. The study population was 310 health workers engaged in seven urban health centers in Taegu City area. A questionnaire method was used to collect data and response rate was 81.3 percent or 252 respondents. The following are summaries of findings: Profiles of study population: Health workers were predomina1itly female(62.3%); had college education(60. 3%); 'and held medical and nursing positions(39.6%), technicians(30.6%) and. public health/administrativc positions(29.8%). Perceptions on health center's resources: Slightly more than a half(51.1%) of respondents expressed that physical facilities of the centers are inadequate; equipments needed are short(39.0%); human resource is inadequate(44.8%); and health budget allocated is insufficient(38.5%) to support the performance of health center's activities. Decentralization and health services: The majority revealed that the decentralization of government system would affect the future activities of health centers(51.9%) which may have to change. However, only one quarter of respondents(25.4%) seemed to view the decentralization positively as they expect that it would help perform health activities more effectively. The majority of the respondents(78.6%) insisted that the function and organization of the urban health centers should be changed. Target workload and job satisfaction: A large proportion (43.3%) of respondents felt that present target setting systems for various health activities are unrealistic in terms of community needs and health center's situation while only 11.1 percent responded it positively; the majority(57.5%) revealed that they need further training in professional fields to perform their job more effectively; more than one third(35.7%) expressed that they enjoy their professional autonomy in their job performance; and a considerable proportion (39.3%) said they are satisfied with their present work. Regarding the personnel management, more worker (47.3%) perceived it negatively than positive(11.5%) as most of workers seemed to think the personnel management practiced at the health centers is not fair or justly done. Health services rendered: Among health services rendered, health workers perceived the following services are most successfully delivered; they are, in order of importance, Th controi, curative services, and maternal and child health care. Such areas as health education, oral health, environmental sanitation, and integrated health services are needed to be strengthening. Regarding the community attitudes towards health workers, 41.3 percent of respondents think they are trusted by the community they serve. New areas of concern identified which must be included in future activities of health centers are, in order of priority, health care of elderly population, home health care, rehabilitation services, and such chronic diseases control programs as diabetes, hypertension, school health and mental health care. In conclusion, the study revealed that health workers seemed to have more negative perceptions and attitudes than positive ones towards organization and management of health services and activities performed by the .urban health centers where they are engaged. More specifically, the majority of health workers studied revealed to have the following areas of health center's organization and management inadequate or insufficient to support effective performance of their health activities: Namely, physical facilities and equipments required are inadequate; human and financial resources are insufficient; pefsonnel management is unsatisfactory; setting of service target system is unrealistic in terms of the community needs. However, respondents displayed a number of positive 'perceptions, particularly' to those areas as further training needs 'and implementation of decentralization of government system which will bring more autonomy of local government as they perceived these change would bring the necessary changes to future activities of the health center. They also displayed positive perceptions in their job autonomy and have job satisfactions.
Risk factors in relation to blood pressure in school children.
Dong Soo Lee, Kyeong Soo Lee, Pock Soo Kang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(2):345-359.   Published online December 31, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.2.345
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This study was conducted to identify the factors related to the blood pressure in school children. The study subjects were 144 boys and 140 girls aged 10 years old, 4th grade student of one elementary school in Taegu City. Blood pressure and 18 variables for 284 school children were measured in May 1992. A weight-for-height index, Rohrer index(weightlheighe) was calculated for each individual as a measure of obesity. Body fat percent, fat weight, and lean body mass were measured by impedance fat meter(Model SIF-891). Serum total cholesterol, higli-density lipoprotein, triglyceride, uric acid, total protein, and electrolyte were measured by automated clinical chemistry analyzer(Hitachi 4020). Low-density lipoprotein and atherogenic index were calculated by the equation. The variables assessed were sex, systolic blood pressure, diastolic blood pressure, Rohrer index, body fat percent, body fat weight, lean body mass, total cholesterol, high-density lipoprotein, low-density lipoprotein, uric acid, total protein, serum electrolyte and blood glucose. The mean systolic and diastolic blood pressures for boys were 104.1mmHg and 66.6mmHg and those for girls were 102.9mmHg and 67.5mmHg. Systolic blood pressure of boys was positively correlated with height, weight, Rohrer index, fat weight, lean body mass, and triglyceride. Systolic blood pressure of girls was positively correlated with height, weight, lean body mass, and uric acid. Diastolic blood pressure of boys was positively correlated with weight, Rohrer index, and lean body mass. Diastolic blood pressure of girls was positively correlated with height, weight, fat weight, and lean body mass and negatively with total serum protein. In multiple regression analysis for the systolic blood pressure, the significant independent variables were Rohrer index and serum sodium in boys, and serum uric acid, fat percent, and Rohrer index in girls. In multiple regression analysis of the diastolic blood pressure, the significant independent variables were Rohrer index in boys and total serum protein in girls. This study indicated that important factors influencing blood pressure in school children were Rohrer index, fat percent, serum sodium, uric acid, and total protein. Rohrer index was most important among these. It is recommended to enforce the nutritional education for diet control of obesity to prevent hypertention in children and to adopt healthy life-styles that promote good health and prevent development of cardiovascular risk factors.
Medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area.
In Soo Hwang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Pock Soo Kang, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1993;10(1):91-102.   Published online June 30, 1993
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1993.10.1.91
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This study was carried out to assess medical care expenditure of residents in urban poor area. The study population included 377 family members of 85 households in the poor area of Daemyung 8-Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 442 family members of 96 households in a control area. The data was collected through self-administered q'iestionnaires completed by housewives. The survey was conducted. from , March 1 to May 31; 1992. The mean age was 31. 1 years in the poor area and 37. 1 years in the control area. The average number of households per house was 4.5 in the poor area and 4.5 in the control area. The frequency of medical care utilization per household in a one month period was 4.6 in the poor area and 4.3 in the control area. The average number of days of utilization was 12.9 in the poor area and 12.5 in the control area. The averge monthly income of a househlod in the poor area was 848,600 Won compared to the control area's 1,752,300 Won. The average monthly consumption expenditure of a household in the poor area was 568,800 Won and that in the control area 1,238,400 Won. The average medical care monthly expenditure per household was 34,500 Won in the poor area and 58,400 Won in the control area. The proportion of the medical care expenditure to monthly income and to monthly consumption expenditure was 4.1% and 6.1% respectively in the poor area, and 3.3% and 4.7%, respectively in the control area. The premium of medical insurance was 1.5% in both areas. The proportion of cost for drug was 57.4%, for medical appliance was 1.2%, and for medical treatment was 41.1% in the poor area and in the control area 52.4%, 1.9%, 45.7%, respectively. The highest proportion of medical care expenditures in the poor area was herb clinic utilization (36.9%). while hospital and clinic (37.8%) was the highest proportion in the control area. Mean medical care expenditure per visit was 7,400 Won in the poor area and 12,600 Won in the control area. Mean medical care expinditure per day was 2,800 Won in the poor area and 6.300 Won in the control area.
Association between cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails.
Jung Kil Rhee, Jong Hak Chung, Jun Sakong, Pock Soo Kang, Chang Yoon Kim, Kyeong Soo Lee, Koing Bo Kwon
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1992;9(1):29-43.   Published online June 30, 1992
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1992.9.1.29
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AbstractAbstract PDF
A case-control study was conducted to investigate the association between the risk of cancer and selenium concentration in blood and toenails. Seventy three patients and two hundreds eighty three controls were selected at the Yeungnam University Hospital between May and September in 1991. The selected cases were patients who had been hospitalized for stomach or colon cancer at the Department of General Surgery. The controls were people who visited to check physical examination at the Automated Mediscreening Center. The selenium concentration in whole blood and toenails were measured by atomic absorption spectrophotometer equipped with graphite furnace atomizer. The following information was ascertained for all cancer patients and controls: sex, age, body mass index, blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, and history of smoking and drinking. The mean selenium concentration in blood and toenail for all cancer patients were 143.6±10.8 µg/l and 1.04±0.62 µg/g and for the controls. 167.0±14.5 µg/l and 1.15±0.55 µg/g, respectively. The difference in blood and toenail selenium concentrations of the two cancer sites was not statistically significant. Metastasis did not influence the concentration of selenium in blood and toenails. In the multiple logistic regression analysis, the blood selenium concentration (aOR: 0.888, 95% CI: 0.860-0.918), age, BMI and total serum cholesterol were significant variables for risk of cancer, but the selenium concentration in toenail was not shown to be a significant variable in this regression analysis. The coefficient for blood selenium concentration adjusted for age, sex, diastolic blood pressure, total serum cholesterol, body mass index and smoking was -0.1184 (p<0.01). These findings suggest that low selenium concentration is associated with gastrointestinal cancers. Further epidemiologic studies including important variables such as other antioxidant micronutrients will be necessary.

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  • Clinical Correlation between Gastric Cancer Type and Serum Selenium and Zinc Levels
    Jae Hyo Ji, Dong Gue Shin, Yujin Kwon, Dong Hui Cho, Kyung Bok Lee, Sang Soo Park, Jin Yoon
    Journal of Gastric Cancer.2012; 12(4): 217.     CrossRef
A study on the accidents of the residents in a rural area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Seok Beom Kim, Chang Yoon Kim, Ok Keum Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(2):174-184.   Published online December 31, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.2.174
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To determine the incidence rate of accidents and its associated factors, a prospective survey was carried out in a rural area of a total of 1,360 residents for 1 year from January 1 to December 31, 1988 in Shin-am Ri, Jungdong Myun, Sangju Kun, Kyeongpook Province. Data for accidents were collected by the community health practitioner who is working at Primary Health Post in Shin-am Ri. A total number of accident cases was 85 among 1,360 persons during one year study period, and annual incidence rate was 62.5 per 1,000 persons. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in the age group of 30-39 was 179.8. The incidence rate of accident in male was 86.5 which was about 2 times that in female. In male, the highest incidence rate was seen in 30-39 age group and in female, 60-69 age group. The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in spring (29.4%) and summer (29.4%), and the lowest in fall (17.7%). The highest incidence rate of accident was observed in Friday (24.5%) by day of week, and between 9 a.m. to 12 a.m. by time zone. The most frequent use of medical facilities was Primary Health Post (51.8%) and the next was clinic (38.8%). Mean duration of treatment was 9.8 days. The accident occurred in the room and kitchen (23.5%), in the yard and barn (23.5%), on the road (22.4%), and in the rice field and dry field (20.0%). The causes of accident were motor vehicle accident (20.0%), piercing or cutting (20.0%), collision or fighting (12.9%), and poisoning (11.8%) in order of frequency. The most common type of injury was open wound which was 43.5%. The most common tool of accident was farm machine which was 23.5%. The most common injured part of body was extremity 55.3%.
Morbidity pattern and medical care utilization behavior of residents in urban poor area.
Pock Soo Kang, Kyeong Soo Lee, Chang Yoon Kim, Seok Beom Kim, Jun Sakong, Jong Hak Chung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 1991;8(1):107-126.   Published online June 30, 1991
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.1991.8.1.107
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The purpose of the study was to assess the morbidity pattern and the medical care utilization behavior of urban residents in the poor area. The study population included 2,591 family members of 677 households in the poor area of Daemyong 8 Dong, Nam-Gu, Taegu and 2,686 family members of 688 households, near the poor area in the same Dong, were interviewed as a control group. On this study the household interview method was applied. Well-trained interviewers visited every household in the designated area and individually interviewed heads of households or housewives for general information, morbidity condition, and medical care utilization with a structured questionnaire. Individuals were interviewed from 1 to 30 December 1988. The major results were summarized as follow: The proportion of the people below 5 years of age was 4.2% of the total study population and 5.5% were above 65 years of age in the poor area. This was slightly higher than in the control area. The average monthly income of a household in the poor area was 403,000 won versus 529,000 won in the control area. Fifty-eight percent of the residents in the poor area and sixty-one percent in the control area were medical security beneficiaries, but the proportion of medical aid beneficiaries was 7.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area. The 15-day period morbidity rate of acute illnesses was 57.1 per 1,000 in the poor area and 24.2 per 1,000 in the control area. Respiratory disease is the most common acute illness in both areas. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with acute illnesses in the poor area. Among them 58.1% visited pharmacy initially while 38.4% of the patients in the control area visited a clinic. Among persons with illnesses during the 15 days, 8.8% in the poor area and 4.6% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 3.5 days in the poor area and 3.3 days in the control area. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, The pharmacy in the poor area and the clinic in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital was 'regular customers' in the poor area and 'geographical accessibility' in the control area. The one year period morbidity rate of chronic illness in the poor area was 83.0 per 1,000 population and 28.0 per 1,000 in the control area. Disease of nervous system was the most common chronic illness in the poor area while cardiovascular disease in male and gastrointestinal disease in female were most prevalent in the control area. The most frequently utilized medical facility was the pharmacy among the patients with chronic illnesses in the poor area. Among them 24.2% visited the pharmacy initially while 34.7% of the patients in the control area visited the out-patient department of the hospital within a 15-day period. Among the patients with chronic illnesses 34.9% in the poor area and 16.0% in the control area did not seek any medical facility. Mean duration of utilization of medical facilities was 9.2 days in the poor area and 9.9 days in the control area within a 15-day period. Initially of the medical facilities in Daemyong 8 Dong, the pharmacy in the poor area and the hospital in the control area were most commonly utilized. The most common reason for visiting the hospital, clinic, health center or pharmacy in the poor area was 'geographical accessibility' while the reason for visiting herb clinic was 'good result' and 'reputation' in both areas.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science