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Most-download articles are from the articles published in 2022 during the last 3 months.

Focused Review article
The pathophysiology of diabetic foot: a narrative review
Jiyoun Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(4):328-334.   Published online October 5, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00731
  • 6,279 View
  • 442 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
An aging population and changes in dietary habits have increased the incidence of diabetes, resulting in complications such as diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs). DFUs can lead to serious disabilities, substantial reductions in patient quality of life, and high financial costs for society. By understanding the etiology and pathophysiology of DFUs, their occurrence can be prevented and managed more effectively. The pathophysiology of DFUs involves metabolic dysfunction, diabetic immunopathy, diabetic neuropathy, and angiopathy. The processes by which hyperglycemia causes peripheral nerve damage are related to adenosine triphosphate deficiency, the polyol pathway, oxidative stress, protein kinase C activity, and proinflammatory processes. In the context of hyperglycemia, the suppression of endothelial nitric oxide production leads to microcirculation atherosclerosis, heightened inflammation, and abnormal intimal growth. Diabetic neuropathy involves sensory, motor, and autonomic neuropathies. The interaction between these neuropathies forms a callus that leads to subcutaneous hemorrhage and skin ulcers. Hyperglycemia causes peripheral vascular changes that result in endothelial cell dysfunction and decreased vasodilator secretion, leading to ischemia. The interplay among these four preceding pathophysiological factors fosters the development and progression of infections in individuals with diabetes. Charcot neuroarthropathy is a chronic and progressive degenerative arthropathy characterized by heightened blood flow, increased calcium dissolution, and repeated minor trauma to insensate joints. Directly and comprehensively addressing the pathogenesis of DFUs could pave the way for the development of innovative treatment approaches with the potential to avoid the most serious complications, including major amputations.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Diabetic foot – prevention and control challenges
    Vitorino Modesto dos Santos, Taciana Arruda Modesto Sugai, Lister Arruda Modesto dos Santos
    Belize Journal of Medicine.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Treatment of Morganella morganii-Associated Non-healing Diabetic Foot Ulcer With Vaporous Hyperoxia Therapy: A Case Report
    Afrah S Abedi, Jacob L McElroy, Vladimir Valencia, Rachel M Worcester, Zhi J Yu
    Cureus.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Integrated genetic analysis of diabetic complications: Bioinformatics insights into foot ulcers, neuropathy and peripheral artery disease
    Jiaru Liang, Xiaoyang Gong, Xuyang Hu, Chong You, Jiaqi Zhou, Yuling Gao, Junwei Zong, Yong Liu
    International Wound Journal.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Unveiling the challenges of diabetic foot infections: diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and rehabilitation
    Chul Hyun Park
    Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science.2023; 40(4): 319.     CrossRef
Imagery
"Nostalgia"
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(1):i.   Published online March 17, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00213
  • 1,292 View
  • 225 Download
PDF
Editorial
Appreciation to peer reviewers in 2023
So-Young Park
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(1):1-3.   Published online January 4, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01361
  • 1,038 View
  • 174 Download
PDFSupplementary Material
Communications
Rehabilitative goals for patients undergoing lung retransplantation
Massimiliano Polastri, Robert M. Reed
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):134-138.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00241
  • 652 View
  • 65 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Lung retransplantation (LRT) involves a second or subsequent lung transplant (LT) in a patient whose first transplanted graft has failed. LRT is the only treatment option for irreversible lung allograft failure caused by acute graft failure, chronic lung allograft dysfunction, or postoperative complications of bronchial anastomosis. Prehabilitation (rehabilitation before LT), while patients are on the waiting list, is recognized as an essential component of the therapeutic regimen and should be offered throughout the waiting period from the moment of listing until transplantation. LRT is particularly fraught with challenges, and prehabilitation to reduce frailty is one of the few opportunities to address modifiable risk factors (such as functional and motor impairments) in a patient population in which there is clearly room to improve outcomes. Although rehabilitative outcomes and quality of life in patients receiving or awaiting LT have gained increased interest, there is a paucity of data on rehabilitation in patients undergoing LRT. Frailty is one of the few modifiable risk factors of retransplantation that is potentially preventable. As such, it is imperative that professionals involved in the field of retransplantation conduct research specifically exploring rehabilitative techniques and outcomes of value for patients receiving LRT, because this area remains unexplored.
Focused Review article
Management of diabetic foot ulcers: a narrative review
Jahyung Kim, Otgonsaikhan Nomkhondorj, Chi Young An, Ye Chan Choi, Jaeho Cho
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(4):335-342.   Published online September 22, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00682
  • 3,338 View
  • 259 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 2 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Diabetic foot ulcers (DFUs) are among the most serious complications of diabetes and are a source of reduced quality of life and financial burden for the people involved. For effective DFU management, an evidence-based treatment strategy that considers the patient's clinical context and wound condition is required. This treatment strategy should include conventional practices (surgical debridement, antibiotics, vascular assessment, offloading, and amputation) coordinated by interdisciplinary DFU experts. In addition, several adjuvant therapies can be considered for nonhealing wounds. In this narrative review, we aim to highlight the current trends in DFU management and review the up-to-date guidelines.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Kick-Starting Wound Healing: A Review of Pro-Healing Drugs
    Bethany L. Patenall, Kristyn A. Carter, Matthew R. Ramsey
    International Journal of Molecular Sciences.2024; 25(2): 1304.     CrossRef
  • Unveiling the challenges of diabetic foot infections: diagnosis, pathogenesis, treatment, and rehabilitation
    Chul Hyun Park
    Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science.2023; 40(4): 319.     CrossRef
Review articles
Current diagnosis and treatment of vestibular neuritis: a narrative review
Chang Hoon Bae, Hyung Gyun Na, Yoon Seok Choi
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2022;39(2):81-88.   Published online August 9, 2021
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2021.01228
  • 65,535 View
  • 489 Download
  • 8 Web of Science
  • 12 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Vertigo is the sensation of self-motion of the head or body when no self-motion is occurring or the sensation of distorted self-motion during an otherwise normal head movement. Representative peripheral vertigo disorders include benign paroxysmal positional vertigo, Ménière disease, and vestibular neuritis. Vestibular neuritis, also known as vestibular neuronitis, is the third most common peripheral vestibular disorder after benign paroxysmal positional vertigo and Ménière disease. The cause of vestibular neuritis remains unclear. However, a viral infection of the vestibular nerve or ischemia of the anterior vestibular artery is known to cause vestibular neuritis. In addition, recent studies on immune-mediated mechanisms as the cause of vestibular neuritis have been reported. The characteristic clinical features of vestibular neuritis are abrupt true-whirling vertigo lasting for more than 24 hours, and no presence of cochlear symptoms and other neurological symptoms and signs. To accurately diagnose vestibular neuritis, various diagnostic tests such as the head impulse test, bithermal caloric test, and vestibular-evoked myogenic potential test are conducted. Various treatments for vestibular neuritis have been reported, which are largely divided into symptomatic therapy, specific drug therapy, and vestibular rehabilitation therapy. Symptomatic therapies include generalized supportive care and administration of vestibular suppressants and antiemetics. Specific drug therapies include steroid therapy, antiviral therapy, and vasodilator therapy. Vestibular rehabilitation therapies include generalized vestibular and customized vestibular exercises.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Vestibular function is associated with immune inflammatory response
    Zhaohui Song, Yuchuan Ding, Nathan Sim, Ho Jun Yun, Jing Feng, Pan Gu, Xiaokun Geng
    Reviews in the Neurosciences.2024; 35(3): 293.     CrossRef
  • Prevalence of Scarpa’s ganglion enhancement on high-resolution MRI imaging
    Clayton Siminski, John C Benson, Matthew L Carlson, John I Lane
    The Neuroradiology Journal.2024; 37(3): 332.     CrossRef
  • Vestibular rehabilitation for peripheral vestibular hypofunction: an interdisciplinary consensus
    N.L. Kunelskay, G.E. Ivanova, E.V. Baybakova, A.L. Guseva, V.A. Parfenov, M.V. Zamergrad, O.V. Zaitseva, O.A. Melnikov, A.A. Shmonin, M.N. Maltseva
    Vestnik otorinolaringologii.2024; 89(1): 52.     CrossRef
  • A Review of Calcitonin Gene-Related Peptide and Its Implications for Vestibular Disorders
    Richard Baron, Kristen K. Steenerson
    Current Treatment Options in Neurology.2024; 26(6): 203.     CrossRef
  • Evolution of Hyperventilation-Induced Nystagmus in Acute Unilateral Vestibulopathy—Interpretative Model and Etiopathogenetic Hypotheses
    Francesco Frati, Alessandra D’Orazio, Valeria Gambacorta, Giacomo Ciacca, Giampietro Ricci, Mario Faralli
    Audiology Research.2024; 14(3): 442.     CrossRef
  • Vertigo in the Setting of COVID-19 Infection: A Case Report
    Sanjana Devaragudi, Mohit Gupta
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Hospital Admission Profile Related to Inner Ear Diseases in England and Wales
    Esra’ O. Taybeh, Abdallah Y. Naser
    Healthcare.2023; 11(10): 1457.     CrossRef
  • Symptom of vertigo and dizziness in patients with COVID-19
    E. V. Isakova
    Russian neurological journal.2023; 28(4): 5.     CrossRef
  • VESTIBULAR NEURONITIS: A CLINICAL EXAMPLE OF THE COURSE OF THE DISEASE USING BIOFEEDBACK (BOS)
    Geraskina M.M., Razzhivina K.S., Ustinov S.A.
    "Medical & pharmaceutical journal "Pulse".2023; : 30.     CrossRef
  • Acute vestibular neuritis: A rare complication after the adenoviral vector-based COVID-19 vaccine
    Hamze Shahali, Ramin Hamidi Farahani, Parham Hazrati, Ebrahim Hazrati
    Journal of NeuroVirology.2022; 28(4-6): 609.     CrossRef
  • A Holistic Approach to a Dizzy Patient: A Practical Update
    Ioannis Koukoulithras, Gianna Drousia, Spyridon Kolokotsios, Minas Plexousakis, Alexandra Stamouli, Charis Roussos, Eleana Xanthi
    Cureus.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Identification of hub genes and pathophysiological mechanism related to acute unilateral vestibulopathy by integrated bioinformatics analysis
    Yajing Cheng, Jianrong Zheng, Ying Zhan, Cong Liu, Bihua Lu, Jun Hu
    Frontiers in Neurology.2022;[Epub]     CrossRef
Comprehensive overview of the role of mitochondrial dysfunction in the pathogenesis of acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion injury: a narrative review
Min-Ji Kim, Chang Joo Oh, Chang-Won Hong, Jae-Han Jeon
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):61-73.   Published online February 14, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01347
  • 1,563 View
  • 87 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Acute kidney ischemia-reperfusion (IR) injury is a life-threatening condition that predisposes individuals to chronic kidney disease. Since the kidney is one of the most energy-demanding organs in the human body and mitochondria are the powerhouse of cells, mitochondrial dysfunction plays a central role in the pathogenesis of IR-induced acute kidney injury. Mitochondrial dysfunction causes a reduction in adenosine triphosphate production, loss of mitochondrial dynamics (represented by persistent fragmentation), and impaired mitophagy. Furthermore, the pathological accumulation of succinate resulting from fumarate reduction under oxygen deprivation (ischemia) in the reverse flux of the Krebs cycle can eventually lead to a burst of reactive oxygen species driven by reverse electron transfer during the reperfusion phase. Accumulating evidence indicates that improving mitochondrial function, biogenesis, and dynamics, and normalizing metabolic reprogramming within the mitochondria have the potential to preserve kidney function during IR injury and prevent progression to chronic kidney disease. In this review, we summarize recent advances in understanding the detrimental role of metabolic reprogramming and mitochondrial dysfunction in IR injury and explore potential therapeutic strategies for treating kidney IR injury.
Breakthrough pain and rapid-onset opioids in patients with cancer pain: a narrative review
Jinseok Yeo
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(1):22-29.   Published online June 30, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00367
  • 4,774 View
  • 217 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Breakthrough pain is transitory pain that occurs despite the use of opioids for background pain control. Breakthrough pain occurs in 40% to 80% of patients with cancer pain. Despite effective analgesic therapy, patients and their caregivers often feel that their pain is not sufficiently controlled. Therefore, an improved understanding of breakthrough pain and its management is essential for all physicians caring for patients with cancer. This article reviews the definition, clinical manifestations, accurate diagnostic strategies, and optimal treatment options for breakthrough pain in patients with cancer. This review focuses on the efficacy and safety of rapid-onset opioids, which are the primary rescue drugs for breakthrough pain.
Beneficial effects of intermittent fasting: a narrative review
Dae-Kyu Song, Yong-Woon Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(1):4-11.   Published online April 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2022.00010
  • 6,989 View
  • 371 Download
  • 4 Web of Science
  • 6 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Caloric restriction is a popular approach to treat obesity and its associated chronic illnesses but is difficult to maintain for a long time. Intermittent fasting is an alternative and easily applicable dietary intervention for caloric restriction. Moreover, intermittent fasting has beneficial effects equivalent to those of caloric restriction in terms of body weight control, improvements in glucose homeostasis and lipid profiles, and anti-inflammatory effects. In this review, the beneficial effects of intermittent fasting are discussed.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Intermittent fasting and longevity: From animal models to implication for humans
    Olha Strilbytska, Svitlana Klishch, Kenneth B. Storey, Alexander Koliada, Oleh Lushchak
    Ageing Research Reviews.2024; 96: 102274.     CrossRef
  • Combined Aerobic Exercise with Intermittent Fasting Is Effective for Reducing mTOR and Bcl-2 Levels in Obese Females
    Purwo Sri Rejeki, Adi Pranoto, Deandra Maharani Widiatmaja, Dita Mega Utami, Nabilah Izzatunnisa, Sugiharto, Ronny Lesmana, Shariff Halim
    Sports.2024; 12(5): 116.     CrossRef
  • Effect of Intermittent Fasting Interventions for Treatment of Overweight and Obesity in Adults – A Systematic Review
    Teena Lal, S. J. Ajeet Arulkumar, S. Roopa
    Acta Medica International.2024; 11(1): 7.     CrossRef
  • Intermittent fasting influences immunity and metabolism
    Daniel M. Marko, Meghan O. Conn, Jonathan D. Schertzer
    Trends in Endocrinology & Metabolism.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Maternal intermittent fasting deteriorates offspring metabolism via suppression of hepatic mTORC1 signaling
    Wenzhen Yin, Lijun Sun, Yuan Liang, Chao Luo, Tiange Feng, Yunhua Zhang, Weizhen Zhang, Yue Yin
    The FASEB Journal.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
  • Time-Restricted Feeding and Intermittent Fasting as Preventive Therapeutics: A Systematic Review of the Literature
    Arturo P Jaramillo, Javier Castells, Sabina Ibrahimli, Luisa Jaramillo, Rebeca R Briones Andriuoli, Denisse Moncada, Jhoanny C Revilla
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef
Original articles
Performance of the BD MAX MDR-TB assay in a clinical setting and its impact on the clinical course of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective before-after study
Sung Jun Ko, Kui Hyun Yoon, Sang Hee Lee
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):113-119.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00024
  • 789 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Missing isoniazid (INH) resistance during tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis can worsen the outcomes of INH-resistant TB. The BD MAX MDR-TB assay (BD MAX) facilitates the rapid detection of TB and INH and rifampin (RIF) resistance; however, data related to its performance in clinical setting remain limited. Moreover, its effect on treatment outcomes has not yet been studied.
Methods
We compared the performance of BD MAX for the detection of INH/RIF resistances to that of the line probe assay (LPA) in patients with pulmonary TB (PTB), using the results of a phenotypic drug sensitivity test as a reference standard. The treatment outcomes of patients who used BD MAX were compared with those of patients who did not.
Results
Of the 83 patients included in the study, the BD MAX was used for an initial PTB diagnosis in 39 patients. The sensitivity of BD MAX for detecting PTB was 79.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of BD MAX for INH resistance were both 100%, whereas these were 50.0% and 95.8%, respectively, for RIF resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of BD MAX were comparable to those of LPA. The BD MAX group had a shorter time interval from specimen request to the initiation of anti-TB drugs (2.0 days vs. 5.5 days, p=0.001).
Conclusion
BD MAX showed comparable performance to conventional tests for detecting PTB and INH/RIF resistances. The implementation of BD MAX as a diagnostic tool for PTB resulted in a shorter turnaround time for the initiation of PTB treatment.
Optimal examination for traumatic nerve/muscle injuries in earthquake survivors: a retrospective observational study
Berkay Yalçınkaya, Büşranur Tüten Sağ, Mahmud Fazıl Aksakal, Pelin Analay, Hasan Ocak, Murat Kara, Bayram Kaymak, Levent Özçakar
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):120-127.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00087
  • 853 View
  • 29 Download
AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Physiatrists are facing with survivors from disasters in both the acute and chronic phases of muscle and nerve injuries. Similar to many other clinical conditions, neuromusculoskeletal ultrasound can play a key role in the management of such cases (with various muscle/nerve injuries) as well. Accordingly, in this article, a recent single-center experience after the Turkey-Syria earthquake will be rendered.
Methods
Ultrasound examinations were performed for various nerve/muscle lesions in 52 earthquake victims referred from different cities. Demographic features, type of injuries, and applied treatment procedures as well as detailed ultrasonographic findings are illustrated.
Results
Of the 52 patients, 19 had incomplete peripheral nerve lesions of the brachial plexus (n=4), lumbosacral plexus (n=1), and upper and lower limbs (n=14).
Conclusion
The ultrasonographic approach during disaster relief is paramount as regards subacute and chronic phases of rehabilitation. Considering technological advances (e.g., portable machines), the use of on-site ultrasound examination in the (very) early phases of disaster response also needs to be on the agenda of medical personnel.
Resident fellow section: Clinical vignette
Differential diagnosis for unusually dilated coronary sinus and right coronary artery incidentally found on echocardiography
Byeng-Ju Son, Hojeong Kim, Jong-Ho Nam
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(4):461-465.   Published online October 6, 2023
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00906
  • 2,850 View
  • 97 Download
PDF
Original article
DA-6034 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice
Hong Min Kim, Mi-Hye Kwon, Eun Soo Lee, Kyung Bong Ha, Choon Hee Chung
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):103-112.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01389
  • 1,502 View
  • 32 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content and increased inflammatory macrophage infiltration through the C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 pathway in the liver. DA-6034 (7-carboxymethyloxy-3',4',5-trimethoxy flavone), is a synthetic derivative of eupatilin that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the effect of DA-6034 on the inflammatory response in NAFLD is not well elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of DA-6034 on hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
Methods
Forty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following four groups: (1) regular diet (RD), (2) RD with DA-6034, (3) high fat diet (HFD), and (4) HFD with DA-6034. All mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after the start of the experiment. The effects of DA-6034 on macrophages were assessed using RAW264.7 cells.
Results
DA-6034 not only reduced hepatic triglyceride levels and lipid accumulation but also macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed mice. According to fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, DA-6034 reduced the CD8+ T cell fraction in the liver of HFD-fed mice. DA-6034 also reduced CCR5 expression and the migration of liver macrophages in HFD-fed mice and inhibited CCR2 ligand and CCR4 ligand, which stimulated the migration of macrophages.
Conclusion
Overall, DA-6034 attenuates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in obesity by regulating CCR5 expression in macrophages.
Review articles
Patient-physician interaction education in Korea: a systematic review
Hwan Ho Lee, Yu Ra Kim, Hye Jin Park
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):74-79.   Published online February 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01109
  • 1,025 View
  • 43 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Patient-physician interaction (PPI) is an important area in medical education, but in-depth discussions on the content of the outcome of patient-doctor education are rare. Therefore, in this study, we will systematically analyze the research on PPI education in Korea. In this study, papers searched with keywords related to PPI education from Korea’s academic journal service were targeted according to a systematic literature analysis method. The scope of the study was to include papers published in academic journals that are candidates for Korea Citation Index registration, excluding dissertations, research reports, posters, conference presentations, books, and internet materials. The content included papers targeting medical education and medical school students was set as the range. As a result of the analysis, although communication between PPI has many positive effects in the PPI in medical education at medical schools, obstacles do occur, and various ways to overcome them were suggested. Therefore, although medical interview training between patients and doctors in medical schools is necessary, it was analyzed as being based on overseas research or lacking in specific content. The core of PPI education appears to be medical interviews, and it seems necessary to discuss whether empathy or patient-centered medical care are appropriate as the main principles of PPI education in Korea. Therefore, education on the patient-doctor relationship is an important element in medical humanities and medical humanities education, and it is expected that research and education on this will progress more actively.
Long-term management of Graves disease: a narrative review
Hyo-Jeong Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2023;40(1):12-22.   Published online November 4, 2022
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2022.00444
  • 7,696 View
  • 343 Download
  • 3 Web of Science
  • 4 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Graves disease (GD) is the most common cause of hyperthyroidism, accounting for more than 90% of cases in Korea. Patients with GD are treated with any of the following: antithyroid drugs (ATDs), radioactive iodine (RAI) therapy, or thyroidectomy. Most patients begin treatment with ATDs, and clinical guidelines suggest that the appropriate treatment period is 12 to 18 months. While RAI treatment and surgery manage thyrotoxicosis by destroying or removing thyroid tissue, ATDs control thyrotoxicosis by inhibiting thyroid hormone synthesis and preserving the thyroid gland. Although ATDs efficiently control thyrotoxicosis symptoms, they do not correct the main etiology of GD; therefore, frequent relapses can follow. Recently, a large amount of data has been collected on long-term ATDs for GD, and low-dose methimazole (MMZ) is expected to be a good option for remission. For the long-term management of recurrent GD, it is important to induce remission by evaluating the patient’s drug response, stopping ATDs at an appropriate time, and actively switching to surgery or RAI therapy, if indicated. Continuing drug treatment for an extended time is now encouraged in patients with a high possibility of remission with low-dose MMZ. It is also important to pay attention to the quality of life of the patients. This review aimed to summarize the appropriate treatment methods and timing of treatment transition in patients who relapsed several times while receiving treatment for GD.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Commentary: Azathioprine as an adjuvant therapy in severe Graves’ disease: a randomized controlled open-label clinical trial
    Madhukar Mittal, Azher Rizvi
    Frontiers in Endocrinology.2024;[Epub]     CrossRef
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    Erivelto Volpi, Leonardo M. Volpi
    Clinical Thyroidology.2023; 35(5): 183.     CrossRef
  • Evaluation of the Abbott Alinity i Thyroid-Stimulating Hormone Receptor Antibody (TRAb) Chemiluminescent Microparticle Immunoassay (CMIA)
    Deborah J. W. Lee, Soon Kieng Phua, Yali Liang, Claire Chen, Tar-Choon Aw
    Diagnostics.2023; 13(16): 2707.     CrossRef
  • Mechanisms and Treatment Options for Hyperthyroid-Induced Osteoporosis: A Narrative Review
    Robert M Branstetter, Rahib K Islam, Collin A Toups, Amanda N Parra, Zachary Lee, Shahab Ahmadzadeh, Giustino Varrassi, Sahar Shekoohi, Alan D Kaye
    Cureus.2023;[Epub]     CrossRef

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science