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Imagerys
Cosmos in full autumn
Published online January 24, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00052    [Epub ahead of print]
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Trumpet creepers in summer alleyway
Published online January 24, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00045    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 443 View
  • 2 Download
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Review article
Clinical significance of exosomal noncoding RNAs in hepatocellular carcinoma: a narrative review
Jae Sung Yoo, Min Kyu Kang
Received October 30, 2023  Accepted December 30, 2023  Published online February 8, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01186    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is one of the most lethal malignancies worldwide, with poor prognosis owing to its high frequency of recurrence and metastasis. Moreover, most patients are diagnosed at an advanced stage owing to a lack of early detection markers. Exosomes, which are characterized by their cargos of stable intracellular messengers, such as DNA, RNA, proteins, and lipids, play a crucial role in regulating cell differentiation and HCC development. Recently, exosomal noncoding RNAs (ncRNAs), including microRNAs, long ncRNAs, and circular RNAs, have become increasingly important diagnostic, prognostic, and predictive markers of HCC. Herein, we discuss the clinical implications of exosomal ncRNAs, specifically those within the HCC regulatory network.
Original articles
Effect of pitavastatin on erythrocyte membrane fatty acid content in patients with chronic kidney disease: two-arm parallel randomized controlled trial
Minna Kim, Seong Eun Kim, Su Mi Lee, Won Suk An
Received January 26, 2024  Accepted April 2, 2024  Published online May 8, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00094    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Statins reduce the risk of cardiovascular events in patients with chronic kidney disease (CKD). Although diabetes mellitus (DM) is a reported side effect of statin treatment, some studies have indicated that pitavastatin does not cause DM. The present study investigated the effect of pitavastatin on the fatty acid (FA) content of erythrocyte membranes, which affects the occurrence of DM and cardiovascular diseases. In addition, changes in adiponectin and glycated hemoglobin (HbA1c) levels were evaluated after pitavastatin treatment.
Methods
A total of 45 patients were enrolled, 28 of whom completed the study. Over 24 weeks, 16 patients received 2 mg pitavastatin and 12 patients received 10 mg atorvastatin. Dosages were adjusted after 12 weeks if additional lipid control was required. There were 10 and nine patients with DM in the pitavastatin and atorvastatin groups, respectively. Erythrocyte membrane FAs and adiponectin levels were measured using gas chromatography and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay, respectively.
Results
In both groups, saturated FAs, palmitic acid, trans-oleic acid, total cholesterol, and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels were significantly lower than those at baseline. The arachidonic acid (AA) content in the erythrocyte membrane increased significantly in the pitavastatin group, but adiponectin levels were unaffected. HbA1c levels decreased in patients treated with pitavastatin. No adverse effects were associated with statin treatment.
Conclusion
Pitavastatin treatment in patients with CKD may improve glucose metabolism by altering erythrocyte membrane AA levels. In addition, pitavastatin did not adversely affect glucose control in patients with CKD and DM.
Factors associated with musculoskeletal pain in professional dancers, including lapse period of group practice due to the COVID-19 outbreak: repeated-measures analysis
Kiook Baek, Yu-Mi Choi, Joon Sakong
Received February 21, 2024  Accepted April 3, 2024  Published online May 17, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00171    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
This study investigated the prevalence and associated factors of musculoskeletal pain among professional dancers who experienced a lapse in group practice due to coronavirus disease 2019.
Methods
General characteristics, practice time, region of musculoskeletal pain due to injury using the visual numeric scale (VNS), and causative motion were surveyed among professional dancers. Pain of VNS 0 to 3 was categorized as “no or minor,” 4 to 6 was categorized as “moderate,” and 7 to 10 was categorized as “severe.” The causal motions of musculoskeletal pain were analyzed according to body region. Factors other than motion associated with pain were also analyzed.
Results
In total, 368 participants were included. In the univariate analysis, age and practice time were positively associated with “moderate” pain. Practice time, dance experience, and postural accuracy were positively associated with “severe” pain, as was performing Korean traditional dance. In the multivariable analysis, practice time, group practice, and age were positively associated with pain of VNS 4 to 10, and practice time, group practice, and Korean traditional dance were positively associated with pain of VNS 7 to 10.
Conclusion
Among the factors related to dancer training, practice time, group practice, and dance type affect the occurrence of pain.
Case report
Solar retinopathy related to antidepressant use in a patient with major depressive disorder: a case report
Eun-Jin Cheon
Received February 23, 2024  Accepted April 11, 2024  Published online May 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00213    [Epub ahead of print]
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AbstractAbstract PDF
This case report is a unique case of solar retinopathy following antidepressant-induced mydriasis and highlights the need for comprehensive ophthalmic evaluation in patients treated with medications having mydriatic effects. A 49-year-old female patient who had received long-term antidepressant therapy presented with bilateral visual impairment after prolonged sun exposure. Fundoscopy confirmed solar retinopathy, which was attributed to drug-induced mydriasis. Medication adjustments and sun protection strategies led to full visual recovery, underscoring the importance of interdisciplinary awareness. This case emphasizes the challenges associated with the simultaneous management of psychiatric and ophthalmic conditions and highlights the need for routine ophthalmic evaluation of patients prescribed antidepressants with reported ocular side effects.
Original article
Enhancing ketamine anesthesia with midazolam and fentanyl for children's ear surgery: a prospective randomized study
Seong Min Han, So Young Kwon, Jang Hyeok In, Jin Deok Joo
Received March 9, 2024  Accepted April 11, 2024  Published online May 23, 2024  
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00276    [Epub ahead of print]
  • 159 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Myringotomy with tympanostomy tube insertion (MTI) is a superficial surgical procedure used to prevent hearing loss in children with serous otitis media. Intravenous anesthesia, often ketamine, is preferred for this procedure because of its ability to induce sedation without compromising airway reflexes. However, ketamine alone may be insufficient and potentially lead to spontaneous movement during surgery. This study evaluated the effectiveness of midazolam and fentanyl as adjuvants to ketamine in reducing spontaneous movement during MTI and enhancing the quality of recovery.
Methods
This study involved two groups of 30 patients each: one group received intravenous ketamine (1.5 mg/kg) with an equal volume of normal saline (K group), while the other received a combination of midazolam, fentanyl, and ketamine (0.05 mg/kg, 1 μg/kg, and 1.5 mg/kg, respectively; MFK group). We assessed side effects, intraoperative patient movement, surgeon satisfaction, and emergence agitation scores.
Results
The MFK group exhibited significantly lower scores for patient movement (p<0.01) and emergence agitation (p<0.01) and markedly higher surgeon satisfaction scores (p<0.01) than the K group.
Conclusion
Administering a midazolam-fentanyl-ketamine combination effectively reduced spontaneous movement during surgery and emergence agitation during recovery without prolonging discharge times in children undergoing MTI.
Communications
Rehabilitative goals for patients undergoing lung retransplantation
Massimiliano Polastri, Robert M. Reed
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):134-138.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00241
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Lung retransplantation (LRT) involves a second or subsequent lung transplant (LT) in a patient whose first transplanted graft has failed. LRT is the only treatment option for irreversible lung allograft failure caused by acute graft failure, chronic lung allograft dysfunction, or postoperative complications of bronchial anastomosis. Prehabilitation (rehabilitation before LT), while patients are on the waiting list, is recognized as an essential component of the therapeutic regimen and should be offered throughout the waiting period from the moment of listing until transplantation. LRT is particularly fraught with challenges, and prehabilitation to reduce frailty is one of the few opportunities to address modifiable risk factors (such as functional and motor impairments) in a patient population in which there is clearly room to improve outcomes. Although rehabilitative outcomes and quality of life in patients receiving or awaiting LT have gained increased interest, there is a paucity of data on rehabilitation in patients undergoing LRT. Frailty is one of the few modifiable risk factors of retransplantation that is potentially preventable. As such, it is imperative that professionals involved in the field of retransplantation conduct research specifically exploring rehabilitative techniques and outcomes of value for patients receiving LRT, because this area remains unexplored.
Case report
Atypical presentation of DeBakey type I aortic dissection mimicking pulmonary embolism in a pregnant patient: a case report
Sou Hyun Lee, Ji Hee Hong, Chaeeun Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):128-133.   Published online February 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01319
  • 794 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Aortic dissection in pregnant patients results in an inpatient mortality rate of 8.6%. Owing to the pronounced mortality rate and speed at which aortic dissections progress, efficient early detection methods are crucial. Here, we highlight the importance of early chest computed tomography (CT) for differentiating aortic dissection from pulmonary embolism in pregnant patients with dyspnea. We present the unique case of a 38-year-old pregnant woman with elevated D-dimer and N-terminal pro-brain natriuretic peptide (NT-proBNP) levels, initially suspected of having a pulmonary embolism. Initial transthoracic echocardiography did not indicate aortic dissection. Surprisingly, after an emergency cesarean section, a chest CT scan revealed a DeBakey type I aortic dissection, indicating a diagnostic error. Our findings emphasize the need for early chest CT in pregnant patients with dyspnea and elevated D-dimer and NT-proBNP levels. This case report highlights the critical importance of considering both aortic dissection and pulmonary embolism in the differential diagnosis of such cases, which will inform future clinical practice.
Original articles
Optimal examination for traumatic nerve/muscle injuries in earthquake survivors: a retrospective observational study
Berkay Yalçınkaya, Büşranur Tüten Sağ, Mahmud Fazıl Aksakal, Pelin Analay, Hasan Ocak, Murat Kara, Bayram Kaymak, Levent Özçakar
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):120-127.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00087
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AbstractAbstract PDFSupplementary Material
Background
Physiatrists are facing with survivors from disasters in both the acute and chronic phases of muscle and nerve injuries. Similar to many other clinical conditions, neuromusculoskeletal ultrasound can play a key role in the management of such cases (with various muscle/nerve injuries) as well. Accordingly, in this article, a recent single-center experience after the Turkey-Syria earthquake will be rendered.
Methods
Ultrasound examinations were performed for various nerve/muscle lesions in 52 earthquake victims referred from different cities. Demographic features, type of injuries, and applied treatment procedures as well as detailed ultrasonographic findings are illustrated.
Results
Of the 52 patients, 19 had incomplete peripheral nerve lesions of the brachial plexus (n=4), lumbosacral plexus (n=1), and upper and lower limbs (n=14).
Conclusion
The ultrasonographic approach during disaster relief is paramount as regards subacute and chronic phases of rehabilitation. Considering technological advances (e.g., portable machines), the use of on-site ultrasound examination in the (very) early phases of disaster response also needs to be on the agenda of medical personnel.
Performance of the BD MAX MDR-TB assay in a clinical setting and its impact on the clinical course of patients with pulmonary tuberculosis: a retrospective before-after study
Sung Jun Ko, Kui Hyun Yoon, Sang Hee Lee
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):113-119.   Published online April 5, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2024.00024
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Missing isoniazid (INH) resistance during tuberculosis (TB) diagnosis can worsen the outcomes of INH-resistant TB. The BD MAX MDR-TB assay (BD MAX) facilitates the rapid detection of TB and INH and rifampin (RIF) resistance; however, data related to its performance in clinical setting remain limited. Moreover, its effect on treatment outcomes has not yet been studied.
Methods
We compared the performance of BD MAX for the detection of INH/RIF resistances to that of the line probe assay (LPA) in patients with pulmonary TB (PTB), using the results of a phenotypic drug sensitivity test as a reference standard. The treatment outcomes of patients who used BD MAX were compared with those of patients who did not.
Results
Of the 83 patients included in the study, the BD MAX was used for an initial PTB diagnosis in 39 patients. The sensitivity of BD MAX for detecting PTB was 79.5%. The sensitivity and specificity of BD MAX for INH resistance were both 100%, whereas these were 50.0% and 95.8%, respectively, for RIF resistance. The sensitivity and specificity of BD MAX were comparable to those of LPA. The BD MAX group had a shorter time interval from specimen request to the initiation of anti-TB drugs (2.0 days vs. 5.5 days, p=0.001).
Conclusion
BD MAX showed comparable performance to conventional tests for detecting PTB and INH/RIF resistances. The implementation of BD MAX as a diagnostic tool for PTB resulted in a shorter turnaround time for the initiation of PTB treatment.
DA-6034 ameliorates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in high fat diet-induced obese mice
Hong Min Kim, Mi-Hye Kwon, Eun Soo Lee, Kyung Bong Ha, Choon Hee Chung
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):103-112.   Published online March 15, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01389
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
Nonalcoholic fatty liver disease (NAFLD) is characterized by an increase in hepatic triglyceride content and increased inflammatory macrophage infiltration through the C-C motif chemokine receptor (CCR) 5 pathway in the liver. DA-6034 (7-carboxymethyloxy-3',4',5-trimethoxy flavone), is a synthetic derivative of eupatilin that exhibits anti-inflammatory activity in inflammatory bowel disease. However, the effect of DA-6034 on the inflammatory response in NAFLD is not well elucidated. Therefore, we aimed to determine the effect of DA-6034 on hepatic steatosis and inflammation.
Methods
Forty male C57BL/6J mice were divided into the following four groups: (1) regular diet (RD), (2) RD with DA-6034, (3) high fat diet (HFD), and (4) HFD with DA-6034. All mice were sacrificed 12 weeks after the start of the experiment. The effects of DA-6034 on macrophages were assessed using RAW264.7 cells.
Results
DA-6034 not only reduced hepatic triglyceride levels and lipid accumulation but also macrophage infiltration and proinflammatory cytokines in HFD-fed mice. According to fluorescence-activated cell sorter analysis, DA-6034 reduced the CD8+ T cell fraction in the liver of HFD-fed mice. DA-6034 also reduced CCR5 expression and the migration of liver macrophages in HFD-fed mice and inhibited CCR2 ligand and CCR4 ligand, which stimulated the migration of macrophages.
Conclusion
Overall, DA-6034 attenuates hepatic steatosis and inflammation in obesity by regulating CCR5 expression in macrophages.
Right anterior mini-thoracotomy aortic valve replacement versus transcatheter aortic valve implantation in octogenarians: a single-center retrospective study
Ji Eun Im, Eun Yeung Jung, Seok Soo Lee, Ho-Ki Min
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):96-102.   Published online February 26, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01228
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
The aim of this study was to compare the early outcomes of octogenarians undergoing minimally invasive right anterior mini-thoracotomy aortic valve replacement (RAT-AVR) with those undergoing transcatheter aortic valve implantation (TAVI) for aortic valve disease.
Methods
In this single-center retrospective study, data were collected from octogenarians before and after RAT-AVR and TAVI between January 2021 and July 2022. Short-term outcomes, including the length of hospital stay, in-hospital mortality, all-cause mortality, and other major postoperative complications, were compared and analyzed.
Results
There were no significant differences in in-hospital mortality, stroke, acute kidney dysfunction requiring renal replacement therapy, length of intensive care unit stay, or length of hospital stay. However, the TAVI group had a higher incidence of permanent pacemaker insertion (10% vs. 0%, p=0.54) and paravalvular leaks (75% vs. 0%, p<0.001).
Conclusion
In the present study on octogenarians, both TAVI and RAT-AVR showed comparable short-term results. Although both procedures were considered safe and effective in the selected group, RAT-AVR had a lower incidence of complete atrioventricular block and paravalvular regurgitation.
Impact of COVID-19 on the development of major mental disorders in patients visiting a university hospital: a retrospective observational study
Hee-Cheol Kim
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):86-95.   Published online February 6, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.01256
  • 1,083 View
  • 33 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to investigate the impact of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) on the development of major mental disorders in patients visiting a university hospital.
Methods
The study participants were patients with COVID-19 (n=5,006) and those without COVID-19 (n=367,162) registered in the database of Keimyung University Dongsan Hospital and standardized with the Observational Medical Outcomes Partnership Common Data Model. Data on major mental disorders that developed in both groups over the 5-year follow-up period were extracted using the FeederNet computer program. A multivariate Cox proportional hazards model was used to estimate the hazard ratio (HR) and 95% confidence interval (CI) for the incidence of major mental disorders.
Results
The incidences of dementia and sleep, anxiety, and depressive disorders were significantly higher in the COVID-19 group than in the control group. The incidence rates per 1,000 patient-years in the COVID-19 group vs. the control group were 12.71 vs. 3.76 for dementia, 17.42 vs. 7.91 for sleep disorders, 6.15 vs. 3.41 for anxiety disorders, and 8.30 vs. 5.78 for depressive disorders. There was no significant difference in the incidence of schizophrenia or bipolar disorder between the two groups. COVID-19 infection increased the risk of mental disorders in the following order: dementia (HR, 3.49; 95% CI, 2.45–4.98), sleep disorders (HR, 2.27; 95% CI, 1.76–2.91), anxiety disorders (HR, 1.90; 95% CI, 1.25–2.84), and depressive disorders (HR, 1.54; 95% CI, 1.09–2.15).
Conclusion
This study showed that the major mental disorders associated with COVID-19 were dementia and sleep, anxiety, and depressive disorders.
Marginal fit of three different nanocomposite inlays fabricated with computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) technology: a comparative study
Hyunsuk Choi, Jae-Young Jo, Min-Ho Hong
J Yeungnam Med Sci. 2024;41(2):80-85.   Published online January 22, 2024
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/jyms.2023.00934
  • 1,026 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Background
This study aimed to compare and evaluate the marginal fit of nanocomposite computer-aided design/computer-aided manufacturing (CAD/CAM) inlays. Three types of nanocomposite CAD/CAM blocks (HASEM, VITA Enamic, and Lava Ultimate) were used as materials.
Methods
Class II disto-occlusal inlay restorations were prepared on a typodont mandibular right first molar using diamond rotary instruments. The inlays were fabricated using CAD/CAM technology and evaluated using the silicone replica technique to measure marginal gaps at five locations on each inlay. The data were analyzed by two-way analysis of variance and Tukey post hoc tests ( α=0.05).
Results
There were no significant differences in the marginal gaps based on the type of nanocomposite CAD/CAM inlay used (p=0.209). However, there was a significant difference in the marginal gaps between the measurement regions. The gingival region consistently exhibited a larger marginal gap than the axial and occlusal regions (p<0.001).
Conclusion
Within the limitations of this in vitro study, the measurement location significantly influenced the marginal fit of class II disto-occlusal inlay restorations. However, there were no significant differences in the marginal gaps among the different types of CAD/CAM blocks. Furthermore, the overall mean marginal fits of the class II disto-occlusal inlay restorations made with the three types of nanocomposite CAD/CAM blocks were within the clinically acceptable range.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science