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Volume 23(1); June 2006
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Reviews
Progress of Techniques in Breast Reconstruction Using Autologous Abdominal Tissue.
Jae Ho Jeong
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):1-9.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.1
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  • 7 Download
AbstractAbstract PDF
Breast reconstruction provides dramatic improvement for patients with severe deformity. The reconstruction not only restores aesthetically acceptable breast for patients with mastectomy deformity but also recovers psychological trauma of 'losing feminity' after the cancer mastectomy. There are many options for breast reconstruction from simple prosthetic insertion to a flap operation using autologous abdominal tissue. The choice of operation method depends on the physical condition of the patient, smoking habits, and economic status. Among the many options, the method that uses the lower abdominal tissue is known as the TRAM (transverse rectus abdonimis myocutaneous) flap. Since the introduction of the TRAM flap in 1982 by Hartrampf, the art of breast reconstruction using lower abdominal tissue has been progressively refined to pedicle flap, muscle-sparinga TRAM flap, and recently there have been exciting and revolutionary changes associated with the adoption of the concept of perforator flap. This refined method of breast reconstruction utilizes lower abdominal tissue nourished by the deep inferior epigastric perforator (DIEP). With the DIEP free flap, almost all of the rectus muscle and anterior rectus sheath are preserved and the donor morbidity is minimized. Different from previous flap methods using lower abdominal tissue, DIEP free flap method preserves function of the rectus muscle completely. Understanding the entire progression of breast reconstruction methods using lower abdominal tissue is necessary for plastic surgeons; the understanding of each step of the exciting progression and the review of the past history of the TRAM flap may provide insight for future development.
Epithelial to Mesenchymal Transition in CAPD Patients.
Jun Young Do
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):10-18.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.10
  • 1,607 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Epithelial to mesenchymal transition (EMT) is an important etiologic factor for the development of peritoneal fibrosis in CAPD patients. Mesothelial cells are main source of trans-differentiated fibroblasts under stress from the bioincompatible peritoneal dialysate. In our study there was no difference in dialysate TGF-beta and VEGF between the low and high GDP groups during an initial 12 months. However, after adjusting with D-CA125, the low GDPs group showed a significantly lower D-TGF-beta/D-CA125 and D-VEGF/CA125 during the initial 12 months. Among the adjusted peritoneal growth factors for CA125, VEGF/CA125 and TGF-b/CA125 were factors significantly associated with greater EMT in this study. Adjustment of the peritoneal growth factor for effluent CA125 (surrogate for mass of HPMCs) revealed significant association with EMT suggesting that the fibroblastoid transition from HPMCs could be affected by the amount of intraperitoneal growth factors (TGF-b, VEGF) per unit mass of HPMCs. There was significant improvement in both cell score and D-CA125 at the sixth and 12th months after switching from a high GDPs solution to a low GDPs solution. Use of icodextrin solution in patients who had average peritoneal transport showed not only better systemic effects such as decreased glucose absorption via dialysate but also preservation of the peritoneum, including less EMT and high mesothelial bulk mass. In conclusion, Therapy with low GDP solution including icodextrin may positively impact preservation of the peritoneal membrane integrity and prevention of peritoneal fibrosis with time on PD.

Citations

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  • Transtorming Growth Factor β1 Induces Epithelial-to-Mesenchymal Transition of A549 Cells
    Ju Hee Kim, Young Sook Jang, Kwang-Seok Eom, Young Il Hwang, Hae Raen Kang, Seung Hun Jang, Cheol Hong Kim, Young Bum Park, Myung Goo Lee, In Gyu Hyun, Ki-Suck Jung, Dong-Gyu Kim
    Journal of Korean Medical Science.2007; 22(5): 898.     CrossRef
Original Articles
Myocardial Protective Effect of Histidine-Tryptophan-Ketoglutarate Solution and Cold Blood Cardioplegic Solution in Pediatric Cardiac Surgery.
Tae Eun Jung, Dong Hyup Lee, Sung Sae Han
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):19-25.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.19
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
There is limited data on comparisons between the effect of histidine-tryptophan-ketoglutarate (HTK) solution and cold blood cardioplegic (CBC) solution in pediatric cardiac surgery. The purpose of this study was to compare the myocardial protective effect of HTK solution and CBC solution in patients undergoing pediatric cardiac surgery. MATERILAS AND METHODS: We selected 49 patients with ventricular septal defect and atrial septal defect. HTK solution was used in 21 patients and CBC solution was used in 28 patents. HTK solution was given as a single dose, whereas CBC solution was used in the usual multi-dose method. The incidence of EKG change and concentration of Troponin T and CK-MB were compared for the evaluation of myocardial damage. RESULTS: There were no significant differences in the incidence of ST, T segment change by EKG and serial cardiac enzyme levels between two groups. CONCLUSION: These results suggested that the myocardial protective effect of HTK solution was similar to CBC solution in simple pediatric cardiac surgery.
Effect of the Flavonoid Luteolin for Dextran Sodium Sulfate-induced Colitis in NF-kappa BEGFP Transgenic Mice.
Byung Ik Jang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):26-35.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.26
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Luteolin, a flavone found in various Chinese herbal medicines is known to possess anti-inflammatory properties through its ability to inhibit various proinflammatory signaling pathways including NF-kappa B and p38 MAPK. In this study, we investigated the potential therapeutic effect of luteolin on dextran sodium sulfate (DSS)-induced colitis. MATERILAS AND METHODS: We used a transgenic mouse model expressing the enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) under the transcriptional control of NF-kappa B cis-elements. C57BL/6 NF-kappa BEGFP mice received 2.5% DSS in their drinking water for six days in combination with daily luteolin administration (1mg/kg body weight, 0.1ml vol, intragastric) or vehicle. NF-kappa B activity was assessed macroscopically with a Charge-Coupled Device (CCD) camera and microscopically by confocal analysis. RESULTS: A significant increase in the Disease Activity Index (DAI), histological score (p<0.05), IL-12 p40 secretion in colonic stripe culture (p<0.05) and EGFP expression was observed in luteolin and/or DSS-treated mice compared to water-treated mice. Interestingly, a trend toward a worse colitis (DAI, IL-12p40) was observed in luteolin-treated mice compared to non-treated DSS-exposed mice. In addition, EGFP expression (NF-kappa B activity) strongly increased in the luteolin-treated mice compared to control mice. Confocal microscopy showed that EGFP positive cells were primarily lamina propria immune cells. CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that luteolin is not a therapeutic alternative for intestinal inflammatory disorders derived for primary defects in barrier function. Thus, therapeutic intervention targeting these signaling pathways should be viewed with caution.
Effects of Cyclooxygenase Inhibitors on Vascular Reactivity and Alterations of Cyclooxygenase Expression.
Ki Young Lee, Jin Woo Park, Eun A Eum, Young Jin Kang, Kwang Youn Lee, Hyoung Chul Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):36-44.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.36
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
There is controversy regarding whether COX-2 specific inhibitors are associated with elevation of blood pressure. We compared the effects of aspirin, indomethacin, and celecoxib for vascular reactivity induced by phenylephrine. We also tested the effects of indomethacin and NO donor on COX-1 and COX-2 protein expression, as well as nitrite production in culture medium of vascular smooth muscle cells. MATERILAS AND METHODS: In this experiment, we used the isometric tension study for vascular reactivity. After 45 minutes of pretreatment with aspirin, indomethacin, celecoxib, and phenylephrine induced contractions were tested. COX-1 and COX-2 protein expressions were analyzed by Western blot and nitrite production by the Griess reaction. RESULTS: Although celecoxib pretreatment caused enhanced arterial contraction, aspirin pretreatment induced more potent arterial contraction than celecoxib in the isometric tension study of rabbit femoral artery. COX-1 protein expression was unchanged by indomethacin, SNP and NOR-3; COX-2 protein expression was increased by the addition of indomethacin, SNP, and NOR-3. Especially, NOR-3, a NO donor, significantly increased COX-2 protein expression with unstimulated conditions as well as LPS stimulation. Induction of nitrite production was higher with NOR-3 treatment than SNP treatment with LPS stimulation. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that aspirin caused more potent vascular contraction than celecoxib and indomethacin. COX-2 expression in VSMC depended on the types of NO donor and LPS stimulation.
The Usefulness of Capsule Endoscopy in Diagnosis of Small Bowel Diseases.
Jong Ryul Eun, Byung Ik Jang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):45-51.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.45
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
This study was conducted to evaluate the usefulness of capsule endoscopy (CE) for the diagnosis of small bowel diseases. MATERILAS AND METHODS: We reviewed the medical records of 66 patients (mean age: 52.1 years, male/female: 39/27), who underwent CE at Yeungnam University Hospital from August 2003 to March 2006. RESULTS: Suspicious gastrointestinal (GI) bleeding presenting as anemia or history of gross bleeding was the most common reason to perform CE (71.2%). Other indications included GI symptoms (21.2%) such as abdominal pain/discomfort, nausea, diarrhea, and others (7.6%). In studies performed for GI bleeding (n=47), ulcer/erosion was the most common finding (n=22, 46.8%) followed by tumor (n=5, 10.6%), angiodysplasia (n=3, 6.4%), polyp (n=3, 6.4%), active bleeding (n=1, 2.1 %), ulcer with stenosis (n=1, 2.1%), and normal findings (n=12, 25.5%). Of these, a bleeding focus was detected in 32 cases (68.1%) undergoing CE studies. Among 14 patients with GI symptoms, only two patients had typical findings related with symptoms. Surgical resection was performed in five cases with tumor. Of these, four were diagnosed as gastrointestinal stromal tumor and the other one was a lymphangioma. There were no complications associated with the CE procedure. CONCLUSION: Capsule endoscopy is a safe, noninvasive diagnostic tool for small bowel diseases and may be useful for the diagnosis of small bowel hemorrhage including obscure bleeding. However, further studies are needed to confirm its utility for abdominal symptoms other than hemorrhage because of the low diagnostic yield.
The Effects of Ginseng Saponin on Relaxation of Smooth Muscle in the Lower Urinary Tract and the Corpus Cavernosum.
Hee Chang Jung, Tae Hee Oh
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):52-61.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.52
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Korean ginseng (KG) has been used as a general tonic, and for voiding dysfunction for a long time in oriental society. However, scientific basic studies on the use of KG, have been rare, especially for voiding and erectile dysfunction. This study was performed to investigate the effects of KG on voiding and erectile function by examining the effects of total saponin (TS) on the bladder, urethral and penile cavernosal smooth muscle. MATERILAS AND METHODS: To examine the effects of TS, NewZeland white rabbits were used to obtain tissue strips from the smooth muscle of the bladder, proximal urethra and corpus cavernosum. Adult Sprague Dawley rats were used to examine the changes in urodynamic findings and penile erection after administration of TS. RESULTS: In proximal urethral strips, the rate of relaxation of the proximal urethra was increased from 9.0+/-2.9 to 33.7+/-4.8% in a dose-dependent manner when the concentration of TS was added accumulatively from 0.25 mg/ml to 4.0 mg/ml (p<0.05). However, no significant response was observed in the bladder strips within these concentration ranges. For the corpus cavernosal strips, the rate of relaxation ranged from 5.8+/-2.1 to 36.7+/-5.8%, increasing in a dose-dependent manner when TS was increased from 1.0 mg/ml to 4.0 mg/ml (p<0.05). After administration of 0.1 ml of TS (32 mg/ml) in the rat, the bladder pressure was 37.5+/-8.5 mmHg at 52.1+/-7.0 sec. during isovolumetric bladder contraction, showing no significant differences from 35.7+/-7.8 mmHg and 50.7+/-7.2 sec, respectively, before treatment. However, when 0.1 ml of TS (32 mg/ml) was administered, the relative reduction of urethral pressure was 6.9+/-0.5 mmHg at 62+/-7.5 sec, which was significantly higher compared to 4.6+/-1.1 mmHg at 45+/-10 sec before treatment (p<0.05). For the cavernosal injection study, the change in intracavernosal pressure (delta ICP) was examined after administering 0.1 ml of TS. The cumulative additions of TS at concentrations from 0.5 mg/ml to 32 mg/ml increased delta ICP from 1.3+/-0.5 to 21.3+/-7.8 mmHg in a dose-dependent manner (p<0.05). The duration of tumescence was from 0.3+/-0.1 to 5.2+/-0.2 min, showing dose-dependent increase (p<0.05). Furthermore, the cumulative addition of TS at concentrations from 0.5 mg/ml upto 32 mg/ml did not cause any significant change in systemic blood pressure. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that ginseng improves voiding functions, which is mainly achieved by TS relaxing the proximal urethra, the most important part of the bladder outlet function. In addition, ginseng safely induced a penile erection hemodynamically by relaxing the corpus cavernosum.
Effect of Progesterone on COX-2 Expression and Proliferation of Prostate Stromal Cell.
Soo Ryun Jung, Sung Han Kim, E Hwa Choi, Ji Eun Park, Eun Mi Jeon, Young Jin Kang, Kwang Youn Lee, Hyoung Chul Choi
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):62-70.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.62
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) is the most common benign tumor in older men; the etiology of this disease remains poorly understood. Testosterone and dihydrotestosterone (DHT) both act as androgen via a single androgen receptor. Testosterone is converted to DHT by 5alpha-reductase in prostatic stromal cells. Progesterone has been reported to inhibit DHT conversion; howevwe, its effect on prostatic stromal cells remains to be elucidated. MATERILAS AND METHODS: In this experiment, we investigated the effect of progesterone on androgen receptor expression induced by DHT. We also tested the effect of progesterone on cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) expression, as well as prostate stromal cell proliferation using the cell count kit-8. RESULTS: Progesterone did not cause an increase of prostate stromal cell proliferation. The mRNA expression of the androgen receptor and COX-2 were not changed by progesterone; the expressions of androgen receptor and COX-2 proteins were decreased by progesterone in prostate stromal cells. CONCLUSION: These results suggest that in prostate stromal cells, progesterone decreases androgen receptor protein expression, which results in decrement of COX-2 protein expression. This effect might be mediated by post-transcriptional regulation.
Trends in Malocclusion Patients of Yeungnam University Hospital.
Sung Ho Chung, Hee Kyung Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):71-81.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.71
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  • 3 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
This study was done to better understand patterns, trends and local distribution patterns of malocclusion so that we can provide adequate information to patients, to help make the appropriate diagnosis and therapeutic plans, and to assess the future directions of malocclusion treatment. MATERILAS AND METHODS: Malocclusion patterns, distribution and trends of visiting patients were examined in 993 malocclusion patients who had been evaluated and diagnosed at the Department of Dentistry, Yeungnam University Hospital over a 10-year period from 1995 to 2004. RESULTS: The number of visiting patients per year showed an increasing trend and the visit rate was 1.28 time-higher in females(56.1%) than in males(43.9%). Age distribution showed that the 7-12 year-old group was the largest (36.7%). Geographic distribution showed the majority of patients were from the Dalseo district(28.2%). Angle's malocclusion classification revealed that class III was the largest(38.4%). Crowding was the chief complaint in the highest percentage of patients(33.9%). The therapeutic method used was the fixed appliance in 61% of cases and a combination with extraction in 30.8%. CONCLUSIONS: The availability of dental services can accommodate orthodontic needs adequately as well as obtain reliable quantitative information regarding the characteristics of orthodontic patients.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Distribution of Pediatric Malocclusion Patients in Seoul National University Dental Hospital
    Sophia Rhee, Ji-Soo Song, Teo Jeon Shin, Young-Jae Kim, Jung-Wook Kim, Ki-Taeg Jang, Hong-Keun Hyun
    THE JOURNAL OF THE KOREAN ACADEMY OF PEDTATRIC DENTISTRY.2021; 48(2): 140.     CrossRef
  • Estimation of the prevalence of malocclusion on the basis of nationwide oral health examinations of pre-adolescent and adolescent students during 2012–2017
    Mihee Hong, Hee-Moon Kyung, Hyo-Sang Park, Won-Jae Yu, Seung-Hak Baek
    The Korean Journal of Orthodontics.2020; 50(3): 197.     CrossRef
  • Five-year investigation of a large orthodontic patient population at a dental hospital in South Korea
    Yongxu Piao, Sung-Jin Kim, Hyung-Seog Yu, Jung-Yul Cha, Hyoung-Seon Baik
    The Korean Journal of Orthodontics.2016; 46(3): 137.     CrossRef
Analysis of Matrix Metalloproteinase-9 Expression in Renal Cell Carcinoma.
Ji Yoon Kim, Tong Choon Park
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):82-89.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.82
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AbstractAbstract PDF
BACKGROUND
Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) are involved in the degradation of the extracellular matrix, which is an important step in tumor invasion and metastasis. A positive correlation between the expression of MMP-9 and aggressive behavior of renal cell carcinomas (RCCs) has been reported. MMP-9 expression in RCCs and adjacent normal kidney tissues were examined in this study. MATERILAS AND METHODS: Twenty-five patients pathologically diagnosed as clear cell RCCs, from specimens obtained at radical nephrectomy, between May 2003 and December 2004 were enrolled in this study. MMP-9 activity was estimated using gelatin zymography, and quantified using a laser densitometer. The results were compared with clinicopathological characteristics. RESULTS: The expression of MMP-9 was significantly elevated in the RCC compared with non-tumor kidney specimens (p<0.01). The levels of MMP-9 expression in the RCC patients with large tumors (>4 cm) or vascular invasion were significantly higher than in those without these clinical manifestations (p<0.01). There were also significant differences in the expression of MMP-9 among T stages (p<0.01). The tissue MMP-9 level was the highest in nuclear grade 4, but there was no statistical significance between the histological grades (p=0.17). CONCLUSIONS: These results suggest that enhanced MMP-9 expression contributes to carcinogenesis and tumor progression in the later stages of RCC.
Case Reports
Desmoplastic Small Round Cell Tumor: A Case Report.
Joon Hyuk Choi, Sung Soo Yun, Jay Chun Chang
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):90-95.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.90
  • 1,514 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Desmoplastic small round cell tumor (DSRCT) is a rare and highly malignant mesenchymal tumor found in the abdominal cavity. It mainly affects young male patients. We report a case of DSRCT that occurred in the abdominal cavity of a 50-year-old man. The tumor was characterized by small round tumor cells with irregular nests in the prominent desmoplastic stroma. The tumor cells showed immunoreactivity for epithelial membrane antigen, desmin, vimentin, and neuron specific enolase.
Anesthesia for a Jehovah's Witness Patient Experiencing Unexpected Perioperative Hemorrhage: A Case Report.
Seoung Ki Lim, Dae Lim Jee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):96-102.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.96
  • 1,688 View
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  • 1 Crossref
AbstractAbstract PDF
Jehovah's Witnesses refuse a transfusion of blood or blood products because of religious beliefs; this refusal at times presents a dilemma for the treating physician. We report a case of a 25-year-old Jehovah's Witness patient who underwent a reoperation for a previous proximal humerus shaft fracture and experienced unexpected massive hemorrhage intraoperatively and postoperatively. The postoperative lowest hemoglobin level was 2.9 g/dl. The patient recovered from the severe anemia without any clinical sequala. We review the legal, ethical and religious issues and suggest the best possible medical care that Jehovah's Witness patient would permit.

Citations

Citations to this article as recorded by  
  • Experience of a bloodless operation and care for Jehovah's Witnesses - Two cases report -
    Sung Hwan Cho, Bon Sung Koo, Sang Hyun Kim, Won Seok Chai, Hee Cheol Jin, Yong Ik Kim
    Korean Journal of Anesthesiology.2008; 55(5): 621.     CrossRef
A Case of Mercury Intoxication Associated with Pernicious Anemia.
Kyoung Ae Chang, Hyun Do Kim, Sun Jung Mun, Dong Hee Kim, Sung Ho Chun, Ha Young Lee, Dong Woon Bae, Hee Soon Cho, Kyung Hee Lee, Myung Soo Hyun
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):103-107.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.103
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Pernicious anemia is the frequent cause of megaloblastic anemia, and it is the result of a vitamin B12 deficiency due to the decrease or absence of intrinsic factor (IF) because of gastric mucosa atrophy or autoimmune destruction of IF-producing parietal cells. With the existence of a severe gastric atrophy, there is a decreased in acid and IF production and a further change in vitamin B12 absorption. Mercury is ubiquitous in nature and exists in 3 forms, elemental mercury, inorganic salts and organic compounds. Organic forms, specifically methyl mercury, are the most toxic of the 3 classes of mercurials. Methyl mercury exerts its most devastating effect on the central nervous system by causing psychiatric disturbances, ataxia, visual loss, hearing loss, and neuropathy. We report a case of mercury intoxication associated with pernicious anemia. The 77 years old patient was referred to Yeungnam University Hospital for tongue pain, somatitis, headache and aggressive behavior. He had taken an unevaluated medicine for a long time. After clinical evaluation, this case was diagnosed as a pernicious anemia and the unevaluated medicine was made up of mercury. After the administration of D-penicillamine and intramuscular injection of BAL and cobalamine, clinical symptoms and aggressive behavior were improved as well as laboratory findings.
A Case of Bladder Stone and Vesicovaginal Fistula after McDonald Operation.
Chang Jun Yoon, Ki Hak Moon, Hee Chang Jung
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):108-112.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.108
  • 1,482 View
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AbstractAbstract PDF
The frequency of a bladder foreign body in the female is lower than in the male, and bladder stones attached to foreign bodies such as non-absorbable suture material are not common. Moreover, vesicovaginal fistulas due to migration or puncture of suture materials into the bladder are rare. In this report, we present a case of bladder stone and vesicovaginal fistula formation in a 29-year-old female patient who had been treated with the McDonald operation for an incompetent internal os of the cervix (IIOC) during pregnancy. The patient was successfully treated by cystoscopic removal of the bladder stone with suture material and conservative treatment for the vesicovaginal fistula.
A Case of Systemic Lupus Erythematosus Presenting with Amaurosis Fugax without Antiphospholipid Antibodies Syndrome.
Jung Hyun Kim, Jung Sang Hah, Mee Young Park, Se Jin Lee, Jun Lee
Yeungnam Univ J Med. 2006;23(1):113-117.   Published online June 30, 2006
DOI: https://doi.org/10.12701/yujm.2006.23.1.113
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AbstractAbstract PDF
Systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) is a chronic autoimmune disease that may affect many organ systems including the nervous system. The immune response in patients with SLE can cause inflammation and other damage that can cause significant injury to the arteries and tissues. A 48-year-old woman was admitted to the hospital because of transient monocular blindness. Magnetic resonance imaging and conventional angiography showed severe stenosis of the distal intracranial internal carotid artery. The patient was diagnosed as having SLE but the antiphospholipid antibodies were negative. Amaurosis fugax has not been previously reported as an initial manifestation of SLE in Korea. We report a patient with a retinal transient ischemic attack as the first manifestation of SLE.

JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science