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JYMS : Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science

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HOME > J Yeungnam Med Sci > Volume 1(1); 1984 > Article
Review Diagnosis and Management of Acute Renal Failure in Surgical Patient.
Koing Bo Kwun
Journal of Yeungnam Medical Science 1984;1(1):13-23
Published online: December 31, 1984
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Acute renal failure refers to a rapid reduction in renal function that usually occurs in an individual with no known previous renal disease. Development of a complication of acute renal failure in critically ill surgical patients is not unusual, and it causes high morbidity and mortality. Acute renal failure can be divided as Pre-renal (functional), Renal (organic), and Post-renal (obstructive) azotemia according to their etiologies. Early recognition and proper correction of pre-renal conditions are utter most important to prevent an organic damage of kidney. These measures include correction of dehydration, treatment of sepsis, and institution of shock therapy. Prolonged exposure to ischemia or nephrotoxin may lead a kidney to permanent parenchymal damage. A differential diagnosis between functional and organic acute renal failure may not be simple in many clinical settings. Renal functional parameters, such as FENa+ or renal failure index, are may be of help in these situations for the differential diagnosis. Provocative test utilizing mannitol, loop diuretics and renovascular dilators after restoration of renal circulation will give further benefits for diagnosis or for prevention of functional failure from leading to organic renal failure. Converting enzyme blocker, dopamine, calcium channel blocker, and propranolol are also reported to have some degree of renal protection from bioenergetics renal insults. Once diagnosis of acute tubular necrosis has been made, all measures should be utilized to maintain the patient until renal tubular regeneration occurs. Careful regulation of fluid, electrolyte, and acid-base balance is primary goal. Hyperkalemia over 6.5 mEq/L is a medical emergency and it should be corrected immediately. Various dosing schedules for medicines excreting through kidney have been suggested but none was proved safe and accurate. Therefore blood level of specific medicines better be checked before each dose, especially digoxin and Aminoglycosides. Indication for application of ultrafiltration hemofilter or dialysis may be made by individual base.

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